.af Domain Registration
- 1 Year 99.00 USD
- 2 Years 194.04 USD
- 3 Years 288.09 USD
- 4 Years 380.16 USD
- 5 Years 470.25 USD
Registration Time Frame
Yes Details Are Individual .af domain registrations allowed?
Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .af?
No Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .af?
Yes Details Are some .af domain names restricted?
No Details Does .af domain have a special use?
Yes Details Other information I need to know about .af?
No Details Are there any additional fees for .af?
No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .af?
No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?
Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details
.af Domain FAQ
.af General FAQ
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a mountainous country located in south central Asia, sharing borders with Pakistan, Iran and China, among others. It has long been a very important area for human civilization, and has been populated from as far back as 50,000 B.C.
Afghanistan is currently experiencing a return of millions of expatriates, and they have brought with them new skills and funds that are creating new cpr144449003101 jobs and helping to revitalize the nation's economy, which is largely supported by the mining of minerals, such as gold, copper, iron and lithium.
Why should I buy a .af domain name?
Afghanistan is a nation in a rebuilding phase, and the influx of business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the needs of the cpr144449003101 emerging consumer and commercial markets. The .af extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image to local customers.
What name can I register?
Domain name registration is strictly prohibited by any of the following purposes:
- The display of sexually offensive contents;
- Spamming activities including the development of tools used to spam; or any software or resources to be used for illegal activities, including viruses and hacking tools;
- Any other activity, which is illegal under Afghan law.
The .af DNS authority will not cpr144449003101 accept the following domain names for registration:
Names that are already registered ("first come, first served" -principle) or that are put on hold. A name is put on hold if:
Legal proceedings, whether within or outside the scope of a court of law, are in progress over that name, or
The .af DNS authority has asked the domain name holder to replace his registrar in case the registrars contract with the .af DNS authority is terminated.
Names will be registered for the person whose application is completed first, notwithstanding earlier applications for those names that are not yet complete.
An application is complete when it is received with all the required data by the .af DNS authority computer system (not when it was sent).
The refusal to register a domain name by the .af DNS authority does not create any rights (priority rights or other) for the applicant.
The applicant may file a new application, in competition with anybody else, if that name later becomes available to the public.
What is the registration term allowed for .af domain names?
The minimum term for .af cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .af domain name?
YesAre Individual .af domain registrations allowed?
YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .af?
NoAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .af?
YesAre some .af domain names restricted?Registering trademarks owned by third parties, the display of sexually offensive contents, spamming activities including viruses and hacking tools, activities illegal under Afghan law are prohibited. For complete restrictions see FAQs.
NoDoes .af domain have a special use?
YesOther information I need to know about .af?You will be sent an email and must click on the link to confirm before domain will be activated for use.
NoAre there any cpr144449003101 additional fees for .af?
NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .af?
NoWHOIS Privacy service available?
Yes.af Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?
Don't Have All of These Requirements for Afghanistan .af? Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.
Available at Checkout
.af Trustee / Proxy Fee: per
.af Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee:
How long does it take to register my .af domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .af during general availability is 1 Day. .af is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until 1 Day. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .af domain names?
Domain Names must:
- have minimum of 2 and a maximum of 63 characters;
- begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
- use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
- neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
- not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.af); and
- not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.af).
Trustee Service for .af
Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.cpr144449003101
Trustee service is not available for this extension
How do I host my .af domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .af. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
- How do I transfer my .af domain name?
Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .af requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .af domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .af domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?
No, .af does not cpr144449003101 support Internationalized Domain Names
Grace period for .af domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .af domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .af domain names?
The National Internet Registry of Afghanistan (NIRA) is the not-for-profit government organization responsible for providing and registering Internet resources in Afghanistan. You may visit them here: Afghanistan Network Information Center cpr144449003101
.af Domains Dispute & Policy
Last Update 29 November 2011. The most current .af domains dispute policy can be found at: http://www.nic.AF/domainpolicy.htmAfghanistan Country Code Top level Domain Policy1: Definition
2. Acceptable Domain Names
- ".AF DNS authority" means the Afghanistan Domain Administration Committee (as of November 2002, the Ministry of Communications of Afghanistan) supported by the Technical Focal Point which has the right to grant licenses to use domain names in the ".AF " domain;
- "the registrar" means the organization or undertaking that enters into a non-exclusive registrar agreement with the .AF DNS authority and obtains from the .af DNS authority the right to apply for the registration and renewal of domain names under the ".AF " domain on behalf of its clients but for its own account. As of November 2002, UNDP Afghanistan office in Kabul is one authorized registrar;
- "the license" means the person that applies for or has obtained a license from the .AF DNS authority to use a particular name in the ".AF " domain.
The .AF DNS authority will not accept the following domain names for registration:
- Names that are already registered ("first come, first served" -principle) or that are put on hold. A name is put on hold if:
- Legal proceedings, whether within or outside the scope of a court of law, are in progress over that name, or
- The .AF DNS authority has asked the domain name holder to replace his registrar in case the registrars contract with the .AF DNS authority is terminated.
- Names that consist of characters other than "a-z", "A-Z", "0-9" and "-", or that start or end with "-" (as recommended in RFC 1035).
- Names of less than two characters or more than sixty-three (63) characters.
- Names with "-" on the third and the fourth position.
a) After the registrar completes the registration process and pays the registration fees, the .AF DNS authority grants an exclusive license to the licensee to use the domain name in the application.b) The license is valid for one year and is renewable as long as the registration fee has been settled.c) The license is not transferable unless the domain name is transferred with the business assets of the licensee. The license for a domain name that is on hold cannot be transferred, with exception for the appointment of a new registrar as described in article 6, b, second paragraph.d) The .AF DNS authority may terminate the license if the licensee breaches any of the terms and conditions of the domain name registration, including non-payment of the license fee by the licensee's registrar. In case of a breach of the terms and conditions, the .AF DNS authority can send a reminder by e-mail to both the registrar and the licensee informing them that the license will be terminated if the breach is not remedied within 14 days.4. Fees and Payment
a) The licensee is aware that the registrar acting on his behalf must pay the initial registration fee and the renewal fee according to the agreement between the registrar and the .AF DNS authority.
As of November 2002, the registration fees are as follow:b) The registrar has access to the computer system of the .AF DNS authority in order to verify the status and expiration date of the domain names that he manages. The registrar is responsible for the timely advice to the licensee that the license for his registered domain names is due to be renewed.c) The .AF DNS authority is not responsible for the registrar's non-payment of registration or renewal fees, which may result in the non-registration or cancellation of a domain name (even if the licensee has paid the registrar).5. Obligation to have a working e-mail address
The licensee must have a working e-mail address, which is inserted in the .af DNS authority database. The .AF DNS authority and the licensee must use this e-mail address for official communication between them, and the licensee must keep the address up-to-date through his registrar. If the e-mail address is not kept up-to-date, the licensee is in breach of these terms and conditions and the .AFDNS authority may terminate the license as provided in article 3 above.6. Agreement between Licensee and Registrar
a) The licensee authorizes the .AF DNS authority to process personal and other data required to operate the ".AF domain name system. The .AF DNS authority must only use the data for operating the system and may only transfer the data to third parties if ordered to do so by the public authorities, upon demand of the dispute resolution entity mentioned in article 10 or as provided in paragraph (c) of this article. The licensee has the right to access his personal data and to arrange for it to be amended, where errors exist.b) The licensee must keep the .AF DNS authority immediately informed through the registrar of any change in name, address, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers. An omission or delay in informing the .AF DNS authority of such changes may result in the termination of the license.c) The licensee authorizes the .AF DNS authority to make the following personal data accessible on its web site – along with some other technical data - to guarantee the transparency of the domain name system towards the public:The licensee also authorizes the .AF DNS authority to transfer that data to third parties for the purpose of inclusion in a publicly available directory. The licensee may at any time and without giving any reason inform the .af DNS authority that his personal data may not be transferred. The .AF DNS authority must then take all necessary steps to block the data transfer within five working days.
8. Representations and Warranties
- Name, address and telephone and fax number of licensee;
- Date of registration and status of the domain name;
- E-mail address of licensee;
- Language chosen for the dispute resolution set out in article 10.
a) The licensee agrees and warrants that:
b) The .AF DNS authority is not liable for any damage, direct or indirect damage, consequential damage and loss of profits, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), or otherwise, resulting from or related to the registration or use of a domain name, or to the use of its software or web site, even if the .af DNS authority has been advised of the possibility of such damage. Examples of exclusions include :The .AF DNS authority will exercise its best efforts to provide its services according to the "best practices" standard of the registration authorities. The .AF DNS authority will exercise its best efforts to provide its services according to the "best practices" standards adopted and approved in the national or international context. The licensee must indemnify the .AFDNS authority against any claim (and the resulting costs, including attorneys' fees) originating from the use or registration of a domain name that infringes the rights of a third party. Disputes between the ] .AF DNS authority and the licensee must be brought before the appropriate Afghanistan courts which will have exclusive jurisdiction, and must be governed and interpreted in accordance with the laws of Afghanistan.
- All statements made during the registration process and the term of the license are complete and accurate.
- Registering the domain name will not infringe or otherwise violate the rights of a third party.
- The domain name is not registered for an unlawful purpose.
- The domain name is not used in violation of any applicable laws or regulations, such as a name that helps to discriminate on the basis of race, language, sex, religion or political view;
- The domain name is not contrary to public order or morality (e.g. obscene or offensive names).
9. Change of Registration Rules
- Registration or renewal (or the default of registration or renewal) of a domain name in favor of a licensee or a third party due to an error concerning their identity.
- Termination of the .AF DNS authority’s rights to register domain names in the ".AF " domain.
- Rights that third parties claim to domain names.
- Technical problems cpr144449003101 or faults.
- Acts or omissions of the registrars regarding the application, registration or renewal of domain names, which may result in the non-registration, or cancellation of a domain name.
a) The rules of the domain name registration procedure are dynamic and subject to change.b) If the .AFDNS authority decides to change its rules, it will make the new rules available to the public by posting them on its web site at least thirty (30) days before the new rules take effect. Each registration procedure will be handled according to the rules in effect on the date the application is complete.c) As a deviation of the previous rule, the .AFDNS authority can modify the technical registration rules without the application of the mentioned minimum delay of thirty (30) days. Such modifications will take effect from the moment of their announcement on the website of the .AFDNS authority. The .AFDNS authority can only make use of this specific procedure as far as those modifications seem justified within the national or international technical context and as far as they are intended to prevent registrations of speculative nature.d) The .AFDNS authority will not personally inform licensees, whose domain names have been rejected in the past, that new rules apply, even if the rejected names would be allowed under the new rules.10. Dispute Resolution Policy
a) Dispute resolution.
The licensee must submit the type of disputes set out below to alternative dispute resolution proceedings and accepts in this regard the competence of an accredited. Dispute Resolution Entity. The licensee accepts that those proceedings must be conducted before one of the accredited. Dispute Resolution Entities listed at the web site of the .AFDNS authority. The procedure will be conducted in the language chosen by the licensee during his application. Every dispute will be governed by the dispute resolution policy applicable when the complaint is filed. As of November 2002, the designated Dispute Resolution Entity for .AF isb) Applicable disputes.
c) Rules of procedure.
- The licensee must submit a dispute to alternative dispute resolution proceedings if a third party (a "Complainant") asserts to the Dispute Resolution Entity, in compliance with the rules of procedure, and proves that:
1. The licensee's domain name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark, a trade name, a social name or corporation name, a geographical designation, a name of origin, a designation of source, a personal name or name of a geographical entity in which the Complainant has rights; and2. The licensee has no rights or legitimate interests in the domain name; and3. The licensee's domain name has been registered or is being used in bad faith.
- The evidence of such in bad faith registration or use of a domain name can, inter alia, be demonstrated by the following circumstances:
1. Circumstances indicating that the domain name was registered or acquired primarily for the purpose of selling, renting, or otherwise transferring the domain name to the Complainant who is the owner of the trademark, trade name, social name or corporation name, geographical designation, name of origin, designation of source, personal name or name of the geographical entity, or to a competitor of that Complainant, for valuable consideration in excess of the costs directly related to the domain name; or2. The domain name was registered in order to prevent the owner of a trademark, a trade name, a social name or corporation name, a geographical designation, a name of origin, a designation of source, a personal name or a name of a geographical entity from reflecting this name in a corresponding domain name, provided that the licensee has engaged in a pattern of such conduct; or3. The domain name was registered primarily for the purpose of disrupting the business of a competitor; or4. The domain name was intentionally used to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users to the licensee's web site or other on-line location, by creating a likelihood of confusion with the Complainant's trademark, trade name, social name or corporation name, geographical designation, name of origin, designation of source, personal name or name of a geographical entity as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of the licensee's web site or location or of a product or service on his web site or location.5. The licensee registers one or more personal names without the existence of a demonstrable link between the licensee and the registered domain names.
- If a complaint is filed, the licensee can demonstrate his rights or legitimate interests to the domain name by the following circumstances:
1. Prior to any notice of the dispute, the licensee used the domain name or a name corresponding to the domain name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services or made demonstrable preparations for such use; or2. The licensee (as an individual, business, or other organization) has been commonly known by the domain name, even if he has acquired no trademark; or3. The licensee is making a legitimate and non-commercial or fair use of the domain name, without intent for commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers or to tarnish the trademark, trade name, social name or corporation name, geographical designation, name of origin, designation of source, personal name or name of the geographical entity at issue.
The rules of procedure of the Dispute Resolution Entity state the process for initiating and conducting the proceedings and for appointing the Third-party Decider that will decide the dispute. The rules of procedure also determine the fees that the Complainant must pay. The Dispute Resolution Entity publishes the rules of procedure on his web site.d) Non-intervention of the .AFDNS authority.
The .AFDNS authority does not, and will not, participate in the administration or conduct of any proceedings before. Neither the .AFDNS authority, the Dispute Resolution Entity of the Third-party Decider will be liable as a result of any fault made in the dispute resolution process, except for intentional faults.e) Remedies.
The remedies available to a Complainant under any proceedings before the Third-party Decider are limited to requiring the cancellation of the domain name registration or the transfer of the domain name to the Complainant.f) Notification and publication.
The Dispute Resolution Entity must publish all decisions under this dispute resolution policy on the Internet during a reasonable term.g) Courts of competent jurisdiction.
The submittance to the alternative dispute resolution procedures does not prevent either the licensee or the Complainant from submitting the dispute to a court of competent jurisdiction for independent resolution before, during or after those proceedings. If Third-party Decider decides that the domain name registration should be cancelled or transferred, the .AFDNS authority must wait thirty (30) business days after being informed of the Third-party Decider's decision before implementing that decision. The .AFDNS authority may then implement the decision unless during those thirty (30) business days it receives from the licensee evidence that a judicial decision, enforceable in Afghanistan, rendered in a dispute between the licensee and the Complainant, blocks the transfer or the cancellation. If the .AF DNS authority receives such documentation, it will not take any further action (whilst leaving the domain name 'on hold') till it receives (i) satisfactory evidence of a resolution between the licensee and the Complainant; or (ii) satisfactory evidence that the lawsuit has been dismissed or withdrawn; or (iii) a copy of an order on the merits from that court dismissing the lawsuit or stipulating that the licensee does not have the right to continue to use the domain name.h) Other disputes.
All other disputes between the licensee and any party other than the .AFDNS authority over the domain name registration that are not brought under the alternative dispute resolution procedures must be resolved through any court proceedings, arbitration or other available proceedings.i) Defences.
The .AFDNS authority will not participate in any dispute between the licensee and any party other than the .AFDNS authority over the registration and use of the domain name, neither in the alternative dispute resolution proceedings, nor in any other proceedings. The licensee must not name the .AFDNS authority as a party or otherwise include it in any such proceedings. If the . .AFDNS authority is named as a party in any such proceedings, it reserves the right to raise any and all defences deemed appropriate, and to take any other action necessary to defend itself.j) Domain name on hold.
As soon as a request for alternative dispute resolution is properly filed with the Dispute Resolution Entity and the appropriate fee is paid, the Dispute Resolution Entity must inform the .AF DNS authority of the identity of the Complainant and the domain name involved. The .AF DNS authority must immediately put the domain name involved "on hold", under articles 2 and 3 of these terms and conditions. The domain name remains on hold until the end of the proceedings set out in paragraph (g).11. Rules For Domain Name Use
Domain name registration is strictly prohibited by any of the following purposes:1. The display of sexually offensive contents;2. Spamming activities including the development of tools used to spam ; or any software or resources to be used for illegal activities, including viruses and hacking tools;3. Any other activity which is illegal under Afghan law.12. Required Documents
The registrant must bring the following documents for the registration of domain names under .AFdomain.1. If the registrant wants to register a domain name ending in “.AF”a. Trade license / Business authorization or approval from the Ministry of Commerce for any other Ministry or body responsible for registration or licensing of such bodies.2. If the registrant wants to register a domain name ending in “.org.af”a. Approval of registration documents from the ministry of planning for verification of the specified organization or any other Ministry or body responsible for registration or licensing of such bodies.13. Disclaimer
13.1 The Registrant agrees that AFGNIC will not be liable for any damage, liability, loss, costs, charges and expenses due to or related to registration of, application for, deletion of, suspension of, transfer of, reverse transfer of and/or use of Registrant’s domain name, or for interruption of business, or any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any kind (including loss of profits) regardless of the form of actions, cause of actions, suits, claims and demands whether in contract, tort (including negligence), or otherwise, even if AFGNIC has been advised of the possibility of such damages. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in the event AFGNIC is found to be liable under this Agreement, in no event shall AFGNIC’s aggregate liability under the terms and conditions of this Agreement or otherwise (including negligence) exceed the cumulative total of the Fees paid by the Registrant.13.2 The Registrant agrees that all conditions and warranties which would otherwise be implied into this Agreement are hereby excluded to the fullest extent permissible by law.14. Indemnity
The Registrant agrees to indemnify and hold and save harmless AFGNIC, against any and all actions, causes of action, suits, claims and demands of any nature or kind as well as from and against any and all damages, liabilities, losses, costs, charges and expenses including reasonable legal fees resulting from the Registrant’s breach of the terms and conditions of this Agreement, registration of, application of, transfer of and/or use of the domain name.
This Agreement (including AFGNIC’s applicable rules, policies and procedures), as amended and supplemented by AFGNIC from time to time, contains the entire understanding between the Registrant and AFGNIC with respect to the subject matter hereof and supersedes all prior agreements or understandings, inducements or conditions, express or implied, oral or written made between the parties hereto.
By submitting this registration form the registrant is constrained and agrees to with all applicable rules and policies effective from time to time
Note: This document is subject to change by AFGNIC from time to time without any prior written notice.
Content by AFG NIC
.af Glossary of Technical Terms
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.
Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Afghan .af domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.
Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.
Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "126.96.36.199", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.
Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.
Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.
Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.
Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.af”.
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.
First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.
Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.
General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.
Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.
Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".
Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.
Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.
New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.
Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.
Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.
Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.
Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.
See Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.
Registrar for .af
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.
Registry Afghanistan .af
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.
Registry Operator for .af Afghanistan
The entity that runs a registry.
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.
The highest level of the domain system.
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.
Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".
Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.
Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.
Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".af" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.
Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)
Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.
Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.
Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.
Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.