.ch Domain Registration
- 1 Year 18.95 USD
Registration Time Frame
Yes Details Are Individual .ch domain registrations allowed?
Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .ch?
No Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .ch?
Yes Details Are some .ch domain names restricted?
No Details Does .ch domain have a special use?
Yes Details Other information I need to know about .ch?
No Details Are there any additional fees for .ch?
No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .ch?
No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?
Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details
.ch Domain FAQ
.ch General FAQ
Switzerland is a landlocked country in Western Europe, sharing borders with Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Lichtenstein. Most of the nearly 8 million residents of Switzerland reside on the plateaus where most of the major cities can be found, including Zurich and Geneva. French, Italian German and Romansh are all official languages of Switzerland.
Switzerland's economy is stable, prosperous and high-tech. The nominal per capita GDP is one of the highest in the world. The cpr144449003101 most important industries in Switzerland are chemicals and pharmaceuticals, measuring instruments, musical instruments, real estate, banking and insurance, tourism and international organizations.
Why should I buy a .ch domain name?
Having a .CH domain extension will allow you to market your business in this and cpr144449003101 growing economy by showing your commitment to the region and lending credibility to your site.
What name can I register?
SWITCH will refuse registration of a domain name if:
- the domain name contains characters other than those according to the currently applicable Annexes of these GTC (capital letters are displayed as corresponding lower case letters);
- the domain name contains hyphens as the first, as the third combined with the fourth and/or as the last character (e.g. "-hallo.li", "ha--llo.li", "hallo-.li");
- the domain name or the ACE string contains fewer than 3 or more than 63 characters, subject to statutory exceptions or exceptions approved by OFCOM or the Office of Communications;
- the domain name is identical to a domain name already registered or to one applied for by an earlier request but such request still being in process or to one in the transition period;
- the domain name in question has been reserved by OFCOM or the Office of Communications (e.g. names of municipalities), unless the requirements for registration defined by OFCOM/Office of Communications for the relevant category are met;
- the applicant does not meet the cpr144449003101 requirements applicable to the registration request.
SWITCH may refuse registration if:
- Important technical reasons or compliance with international standards require it;
- the ability to pay is dubious, in particular if the future holder and/or billing contact designated in the request is insolvent as defined in art. 83 CO, is in default of bill payments for domain names already assigned or does not pay the advance which SWITCH may request for the assignment of domain names for amounts in excess of CHF 500.00;
- there is an evident risk that SWITCH could make itself legally liable due to the registration of the domain name. In these cases the refusal takes place in consultation with OFCOM or the Office of Communications respectively;
- the applicant cannot be contacted for queries, or does not reply within 10 working days (receipt of the reply by SWITCH).
What is the registration term allowed for .ch domain names?
The minimum term for .ch cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .ch domain name?
YesAre Individual .ch domain registrations allowed?
YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .ch?
NoAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .ch?
YesAre some .ch domain names restricted?Illegal activities including malware are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.
NoDoes .ch domain have a special use?
YesOther information I need to know about .ch?If there is an investigation into the domain name, a Swiss correspondence address will be required.
NoAre there any cpr144449003101 additional fees for .ch?
NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .ch?
NoWHOIS Privacy service available?
Yes.ch Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?
Don't Have All of These Requirements for Switzerland .ch? Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.
Available at Checkout
.ch Trustee / Proxy Fee: per
.ch Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee:
How long does it take to register my .ch domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .ch during general availability is Instant. .ch is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .ch domain names?
Domain Names must:
- have minimum of 3 and a maximum of 63 characters;
- begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
- use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
- neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
- not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.ch); and
- not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.ch).
Trustee Service for .ch
Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.cpr144449003101
Trustee service is not available for this extension
How do I host my .ch domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .ch. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
- How do I transfer my .ch domain name?
Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .ch requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .ch domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
- Can I register my .ch domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?
Grace period for .ch domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .ch domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .ch domain names?
You may visit them here: SWITCH.cpr144449003101
.ch Domains Dispute & Policy
Last Update 20 August 2012. The most recent source for .ch domains dispute policy can be found at: www.nic.ch/reg/cm/wcm-page/index.html?res=EF6GW2JBPVTG67DLNIQWUZ35PZ5XU235EF6HWYTLPVIXQPZAMR6X4
I.Generald1.Definitions Claimant is a natural person or legal entity or a collective or limited partnership initiating Dispute resolution proceedings with regard to one or more of the Respondent's domain names by invocation of right in a distinctive sign.
Conciliator is a person whom the Dispute resolution service provider has appointed in accordance with the Rules of procedure in order to conduct the Conciliation.
Contact details are all available addresses such as postal and e-mail addresses as well as telephone and fax numbers.
Dispute resolution proceedings are proceedings in accordance with these Rules of procedure which have been initiated by a Claimant against a Respondent with regard to one or more of the Respondent's domain names.
Dispute resolution service provider is the institution charged by the Registry with the administration of Dispute resolution proceedings in accordance with these Rules of procedure.
Domain Name is a domain name under the domain ".ch" or ".li" without the ending ".ch" or ".li" (Second-Level Domain).
Expert is a person whom the Dispute resolution service provider has appointed in accordance with these Rules of procedure to decide on the Dispute resolution proceedings.
Holder is a natural person or legal entity or a collective or limited partnership which has registered a domain name on application, and which has contracted with the Registry or a Partner.
Partner is a contracting party of the Registry for the registration and administration of domain names, which acts in respect of its customers and the Registry in its own name and on its own account.
Registration agreement is the agreement on registration of a domain name between the Registry and the Holder in the form of the General Terms and Conditions (GTC) of the Registry, or between a Partner and the Holder as the authorised party with regard to the Registry, within the scope of the GTC and the partner agreement between the Registry and the Partner.
Registry is the legal entity which performs the registration and administration of domain names and which is entrusted with this task by the Swiss Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM) for .ch and by the Office of Communications for .li.
Respondent is the holder of the disputed domain name or domain names, against which Dispute resolution proceedings have been initiated.
Right in a distinctive sign is any right recognised by the legal system devolving from the registration or use of a sign, which protects the holder of the right from infringement of his interests as the result of registration or use of an identical or similar sign by third parties, including, but not limited to, the right in a registered business name, a personal name, a trade mark, a geographical indication and the defensive rights devolving from the law on unfair competition.
Rules of procedure are the regulations for settlement of disputes between a Claimant and a Respondent concerning a domain name, which are incorporated by reference and made part of all Registration agreements concluded after 1 March 2004, or whose term of subscription has been extended after 1 March 2004, or to which the Respondent has submitted by participating in the Dispute resolution proceedings.
When the overall context so requires, reference to the singular includes the plural and conversely, and words used in the masculine form shall be construed as including the feminine form.2.Dispute resolution service provider(a) The Dispute resolution service provider shall be appointed by the Registry. Multiple Dispute resolution service providers may be charged with administering the Dispute resolution proceedings in accordance with these Rules of procedure. The Dispute resolution service providers appointed by the Registry shall be published on the Registry website.(b) The Registry shall not be a party to Dispute resolution proceedings, but shall participate in such proceedings as provided for in these Rules of procedure.(c) The Dispute resolution service provider shall be independent of the Registry and shall not be bound by instructions in the administration of Dispute resolution proceedings.(d) The Dispute resolution service provider shall be obliged to treat as confidential any non-public information which has become known to the Dispute resolution service provider in connection with the administration of Dispute resolution proceedings.3.List of Conciliators and Experts(a) The Dispute resolution service provider shall maintain and publish a list of Conciliators and Experts and their qualifications. The Dispute resolution service provider may appoint Experts and Conciliators from a common list. When making such appointments, the Dispute resolution service provider shall attempt to achieve a balanced consideration of the Conciliators and Experts present on its list.(b) Conciliators must have knowledge of the area of dispute resolution as well as knowledge of the laws of Switzerland or Liechtenstein and must have good oral and written knowledge of one of the following languages in addition to English: German, French and Italian.(c) Experts must have knowledge of the intellectual property law of Switzerland or Liechtenstein and must have good oral and written knowledge of one of the following languages in addition to English: German, French and Italian.(d) The Dispute resolution service provider shall propose candidates who are in its opinion appropriate to OFCOM for approval. There is no right to be included in the list. The composition of the list may be adapted to future need in accordance with the experience of the Dispute resolution service provider.(e) The Dispute resolution service provider may remove Conciliators and Experts from the list if they are no longer available for legal or factual reasons, or if in previous Dispute resolution proceedings they have repeatedly failed to comply with the deadlines and provisions of these Rules of procedure.4.Independence of Conciliators and Experts(a) Conciliators and Experts must be independent. Before acceptance of their appointment they must disclose to the Dispute resolution service provider all circumstances which give rise to justifiable doubts as to their independence.(b) If new circumstances arise during the proceedings which give rise to justifiable doubts as to the independence of a Conciliator or Expert, the Conciliator or Expert concerned shall promptly disclose these circumstances to the Dispute resolution service provider.(c) A Conciliator or Expert appointed in Dispute resolution proceedings shall not represent any of the parties in the same matter in subsequent court, arbitration or Conciliation proceedings.5.Replacement of a Conciliator or Expert(a) The Dispute resolution service provider may replace a Conciliator or Expert if, after appointment of the Conciliator or Expert concerned, justifiable doubts arise as to his independence, in the opinion of the Dispute resolution service provider.(b) Within five (5) calendar days of the appointment of a Conciliator or Expert a party may present in writing circumstances which give rise to justifiable doubts as to the independence of the Conciliator or Expert concerned. In this case the Dispute resolution service provider decides in accordance with sub-paragraph (a), unless the Conciliator or Expert concerned withdraws.(c) The Dispute resolution service provider may replace a Conciliator or Expert appointed in a dispute resolution procedure if he has become incapable, for legal or factual reasons, of fulfilling his obligations as part of the dispute resolution procedure concerned, or fails to fulfil these obligations within a reasonable time.(d) The Dispute resolution service provider may replace a Conciliator or Expert if both parties have applied in writing for the replacement of the Conciliator or Expert concerned within five (5) calendar days of appointment. In this case the Dispute resolution service provider may, in consideration of the circumstances of the individual case, determine that the replaced Conciliator or Expert be paid all or part of the Conciliator's or Expert's share of the fee in accordance with the Dispute resolution service provider's schedule of fees. The parties shall bear the additional costs caused thereby in equal shares, unless they have agreed a different division of these additional costs.6.Communications and periods of time(a) The request shall be sent by the Dispute resolution service provider to all postal and fax addresses and also, if available in electronic form, to all e-mail addresses whichhave been communicated to the Dispute resolution service provider by the Registry regarding the holder of the disputed domain name, orhave been communicated to the Dispute resolution service provider by the Claimant or the Respondent as the Holder's contact details.(b) All other written communications relating to the proceedings shall be made by e-mail as far as possible.(c) Each party may update its contact details by communication to the other party, the Dispute resolution service provider and the Registry. As far as Registry changes to the contact details are concerned, its GTC and the formal requirements provided for therein shall apply.(d) Except as otherwise provided in these Rules of procedure or in an Expert's decision, all communications provided for in these Rules of procedure shall be deemed to have been made on the date which in the case of transmissionby fax is specified on the confirmation of transmission,by post or courier service is entered on the acknowledgement of receipt,by e-mail is the demonstrable date of transmission.(e) Except as otherwise provided in these Rules of procedure, all periods of time which are triggered by a communication according to these Rules of procedure commence at the earliest date of transmission determined according to the provisions of sub-paragraph (d).(f) In special cases the Dispute resolution service provider, or, during the term of his appointment, a Conciliator or Expert, may extend the periods of time laid down in these Rules of procedure for a limited period on justified application by one party or at his own discretion.(g) All communicationsfrom a Conciliator or an Expert to a party shall also be communicated to the Dispute resolution service provider and the other party,from the Dispute resolution service provider to a party shall also be communicated to the other party and, for the term of his appointment, to the Conciliator or Expert,from one party shall be communicated to the Dispute resolution service provider as well as, after the commencement of the Dispute resolution proceedings, to the other party and, for the term of his appointment, to the Conciliator or Expert.7.Language of the proceedings(a) The proceedings shall be conducted in the language of the Registration agreement, without prejudice to the authority of the Dispute resolution service provider, a Conciliator or an Expert, exceptionally to determine otherwise on application by one or both parties or at their own discretion in view of the circumstances of the Dispute resolution proceedings. The language of the Registration agreement may be determined from the Whois service of the Registry.(b) Documents submitted as evidence which are in a language other than the language of the proceedings may be submitted in the original language. The Dispute resolution service provider, Conciliator or Expert may order the submission of a full or partial translation of such documents into the language of the proceedings at the expense of the party concerned.8.Suspension of the proceedings
On justified application from the Claimant, the Dispute resolution service provider or, during the term of his appointment, the Conciliator or Expert may suspend the Dispute resolution proceedings for a limited period. Resumption shall take place on application from the Claimant or ex officio by the Dispute resolution service provider or, during the term of his appointment, the Conciliator or Expert. The domain name shall remain blocked for the duration of the suspension.9.Unnecessary or impossible continuation of the proceedings
If continuation of the Dispute resolution proceedings becomes unnecessary or impossible for any reason before a decision is rendered, the Dispute resolution service provider or, during the term of his appointment, the Conciliator or Expert, shall terminate the Dispute resolution proceedings, unless a party raises justified objections within a period stipulated by the Dispute resolution service provider, the Conciliator or the Expert.10.Court proceedings(a) These Rules of procedure do not prevent the parties from submitting the dispute to a competent court of justice for independent decision.(b) A party, which initiates court proceedings in the same matter during Dispute resolution proceedings, shall promptly notify the Dispute resolution service provider.(c) If court proceedings are initiated before or during Dispute resolution proceedings, the Dispute resolution service provider or, during the term of his appointment, the Conciliator or Expert shall have the discretion to decide whether to suspend, terminate or continue the Dispute resolution proceedings.11.Fees(a) The Claimant shall bear the fees of the Dispute resolution proceedings laid down in the Dispute resolution service provider's schedule of fees, except as otherwise provided in paragraph 5(d), 11(d), 17(d) or 22. If a Conciliator or Expert is not appointed, the Dispute resolution service provider shall refund to the Claimant a part of the fee paid by him as specified in the Dispute resolution service provider's schedule of fees.(b) The Dispute resolution service provider is not obliged to take any action before it receives the fees laid down in its schedule of fees.(c) If the Dispute resolution service provider does not receive the fees within ten (10) calendar days after receipt of the request, or, in the case of the fees due for the Expert decision, within ten (10) calendar days of receipt of the continuation application according to paragraph 19(ii), the request shall be deemed to have been withdrawn and the Dispute resolution service provider shall declare the Dispute resolution proceedings terminated.(d) In special and justified cases, the Dispute resolution service provider may demand the payment of additional fees from one or both parties. Paragraphs 5(c), 17(d) and 22 remain unaffected by this.
II.Conduct of the proceedings
A.Request and response12.Request(a) The Dispute resolution proceedings are initiated by the submission of a request to the Dispute resolution service provider in accordance with these Rules of procedure.(b) The request shall be submitted to the Dispute resolution service provider in written form in four copies as well as in electronic form (with the exception of appendices not available in this form) and shall include the following information:the disputed domain name,
the names and contact details of the Claimant,
if the Claimant is represented in the Dispute resolution proceedings, the names cpr144449003101 and contact details of the representative and a corresponding power of attorney,
the name of the Respondent as well as all contact details of the Respondent known to the Claimant and of any representative of the Respondent in sufficient detail to allow the Dispute resolution service provider to send the request as described in paragraph 6(a),
the remedy requested, i.e. a declaration as to whether the Claimant requests the transfer or deletion of the disputed domain name,
a justification of why the registration or use of the domain name by the Respondent constitutes an infringement of a Right in a distinctive sign which the Claimant owns under the law of Switzerland or Liechtenstein (this part of the request shall be limited to a maximum of 5000 words),
a statement concerning any court proceedings which were or continue to be pending with regard to the disputed domain name,
a confirmation that the Claimant has arranged for payment to the Dispute resolution service provider of the fees due in accordance with paragraph 11 and the schedule of fees,
the following concluding statements, followed by the signature of the Claimant or his authorised representative:"The Claimant states that his claims and rights pertaining to registration or use of the domain name, the Dispute resolution proceedings or their completion are directed solely against the Holder and waives all such claims against the Registry or the Dispute resolution service provider, as well as its institutions, board members, employees and representatives, as well as against Conciliators and Experts appointed by the Dispute resolution service provider, in so far as these claims are not based on intentional or grossly negligent misconduct.""The Claimant states that to its knowledge the information contained in this request is complete and accurate, and that this request is not being submitted abusively."(c) If the Claimant applies for the appointment of an Expert, if no Conciliation takes place or, if Conciliation does take place but does not lead to a settlement, the request shall include the following complementary information in addition to the information listed in sub-paragraph (b):the application to appoint an Expert, if no Conciliation takes place or, if Conciliation does take place, but has not led to a settlement,a declaration that, with regard to any court proceedings initiated by the Respondent against a decision ordering the transfer or deletion of the domain name, the Claimant submits to the jurisdiction of the courts of Zürich.(d) Documents and other evidence, particularly with reference to the Right in a distinctive sign claimed with regard to the domain name shall be appended to the request together with a schedule indexing such evidence.(e) The request may relate to more than one domain name provided that all domain names are registered for the same Respondent.13.Blocking of the domain name(a) The Dispute resolution service provider shall notify the Registry immediately upon its receipt of the request Dispute resolution service provider.(b) The Registry shall block the disputed domain name immediately after receipt of this notification for the duration of the Dispute resolution proceedings, as well as, where applicable according to paragraph 26(c), beyond the Dispute resolution proceedings.(c) The effect of blocking a domain name is governed by the Registry's General Terms and Conditions.14.Transmission of the request(a) The Dispute resolution service provider shall review the request for compliance with the formal requirements of these Rules of procedure. A formally correct request shall be transmitted by the Dispute resolution service provider to the Respondent in the manner indicated in paragraph 6(a), if possible within three (3) working days (as observed at the Dispute resolution service provider's place of business) after receipt of the fees paid by the Claimant as per paragraph 11 and the Dispute resolution service provider's schedule of fees.(b) If the request does not meet the formal requirements of these Rules of procedure, the Dispute resolution service provider shall promptly inform the Claimant of the type of deficiencies identified and shall request the Claimant to rectify the deficiencies within five (5) calendar days. If the Claimant does not rectify the deficiencies, upon expiry of the deadline the request shall be deemed to have been withdrawn and the Dispute resolution service provider shall declare the Dispute resolution proceedings terminated. The Claimant is free to submit a further request relating to the same matter.(c) The date of commencement of the Dispute resolution proceedings shall be the date on which the Dispute resolution service provider transmits the request to the Respondent in accordance with paragraph 6(a).(d) The Dispute resolution service provider shall inform the Claimant, the Respondent and the Registry of the date of commencement of the Dispute resolution proceedings.15.Response(a) The Respondent shall submit a response to the Dispute resolution service provider within twenty (20) calendar days of the date of commencement of the Dispute resolution proceedings, determined in accordance with paragraph 14(c).(b) The response shall be submitted in written form in four copies and in electronic form (with the exception of documents not available in this form) and shall contain the following information:a response to the statements and allegations contained in the request including a defence of why the disputed domain name should remain with the Respondent (this part of the response shall be limited to a maximum of 5000 words),
the names and contact details of the Respondent,
if the Respondent is represented in the Dispute resolution proceedings, the names and contact details of the representative and a corresponding power of attorney,
a declaration of any court proceedings which were or continue to be pending with regard to the disputed domain name,
the following concluding statements, followed by the signature of the Respondent or his authorised representative:
"The Respondent states that to its knowledge the information contained in this response is complete and accurate, and that this response is not being submitted abusively."(c) The response shall be accompanied by documents and evidence on which the Respondent relies, together with a schedule indexing such evidence.(d) If the Respondent does not submit a response within the period specified in sub-paragraph (a) and also does not otherwise express his readiness to participate in a Conciliation procedure, the Dispute resolution service provider shall declare the Dispute resolution proceedings terminated, unless the Claimant has made an application for the appointment of an Expert according to paragraph 12(c). If the Claimant has made such an application, the Dispute resolution service provider shall inform the parties and give the Claimant an opportunity to apply for the continuation of the proceedings in accordance with paragraph 19.
B.Conciliation16.Appointment of the Conciliator(a) If the Respondent has submitted a response within the period specified in paragraph 15(a) or has otherwise indicated its readiness to participate in a Conciliation procedure, the Dispute resolution service provider shall appoint a single Conciliator from its list, taking into account availability, the qualifications required in the individual case and any agreement between the parties.(b) The appointment shall be made if possible within five (5) working days (Dispute resolution service provider as observed at the Dispute resolution service provider's place of business) of receipt of the response or on expiry of the period specified for its submission.(c) A Conciliator shall not be appointed as an Expert within the same Dispute resolution proceedings, unless the parties have requested such an appointment by agreement and in writing.17.Conciliation conference(a) After the appointment of the Conciliator, the Dispute resolution service provider shall send the Conciliator the case file, inform the parties of the name of the Conciliator and set the time of the Conciliation conference in consultation with the Conciliator.(b) The Conciliation conference shall take place within twenty (20) calendar days of the appointment of the Conciliator, except in extraordinary circumstances. If no Conciliation conference takes place within this period, the Dispute resolution service provider shall terminate the Dispute resolution proceedings, unless the Claimant has submitted an application for the appointment of an Expert according to paragraph 12(c). If the Claimant has made such an application, the Dispute resolution service provider shall inform the parties and give the Claimant an opportunity to apply for continuation of the proceedings in accordance with paragraph 19.(c) The Conciliator shall promote the settlement of the dispute between the parties in a manner which he deems appropriate subject to compliance with these Rules of procedure. However, he shall have no authority to impose a specific result on the parties.(d) The Conciliation conference takes place in the form of a telephone conference between the Conciliator and the parties lasting a maximum of one hour. If the parties by agreement wish to continue the Conciliation beyond this, they shall bear the resulting extra costs in equal shares, unless they have agreed a different division of these extra costs. The Conciliator shall inform the Dispute resolution service provider of such a continuation of the Conciliation and shall suspend the Dispute resolution proceedings in accordance with paragraph 8.(e) Unless the parties have agreed otherwise, the Conciliator and the parties are obliged to respect the confidentiality of the Conciliation conference. In particular, they shall not use or disclose any non-public information which they have acquired in the course of the Conciliation conference.18.Conclusion of the Conciliation conference(a) The Conciliator shall promptly inform the Dispute resolution service provider of the conduct of the Conciliation conference and its outcome. The Conciliator shall record any settlement reached between the parties in a brief document and shall send one copy of this document to each of the parties. Each party shall send the dispute resolution service provider a signed copy of this document within ten (10) calendar days. Alternatively, within this period, a copy signed by both parties may be sent.(b) If it receives the signatures of both parties within the deadline on one or more copies of the document which records a settlement, the Dispute resolution service provider shall furnish each party with one copy of the document signed by the other party and shall declare the Dispute resolution proceedings terminated. Otherwise, or if no agreement has been reached between the parties, the Dispute resolution service provider shall declare the Dispute resolution proceedings terminated, unless the Claimant has made an application for the appointment of an Expert in accordance with paragraph 12(c). If the Claimant has made such an application, the Dispute resolution service provider shall inform the parties and give the Claimant an opportunity to apply for continuation of the proceedings in accordance with paragraph 19.
C.Expert's decision19.Continuation of the proceedingsThe Dispute resolution proceedings shall be continued if the Claimanthas applied in the request for the appointment of an Expert according to paragraph 12(c), and
has made an application within ten (10) calendar days of the notification according to paragraph 15(d), 17(b), or 18(b) for the continuation of the Dispute resolution proceedings, and
has arranged within the period specified in sub-paragraph (ii) for the payment of the corresponding fees as per paragraph 11 and the schedule of fees.20.Appointment of the Expert(a) If the Dispute resolution proceedings are continued in accordance with paragraph 19, the Dispute resolution service provider shall appoint a single Expert from its list, taking into account availability, the qualifications required in the individual case and any agreement between the parties.(b) If possible, the appointment shall take place within five (5) working days (as observed at the Dispute resolution service provider's principal place of business) of the date on which the prerequisites in paragraph 19 for the continuation of the dispute resolution procedure are fulfilled.(c) After the appointment of the Expert, the Dispute resolution service provider shall send the Expert the case file and inform the parties of the name of the Expert.21.General powers of the Expert(a) The Expert shall conduct the dispute resolution procedure in the manner he deems appropriate, in compliance with these Rules of procedure. He shall ensure that the parties are treated equally and that each party has an opportunity to properly present its case in accordance with the Rules of procedure.(b) The Expert shall determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence.(c) At his discretion the Expert may request further statements or documents in addition to the request and the response or accept such further statements or documents on justified application by one party.22.In-Person Hearings
With the exception of the Conciliation conference described in paragraph 17 there shall be no in-person hearings (including telephone, video or Internet conferences), unless a party has applied for such an in-person hearing to take place. In this case the party concerned shall bear the extra costs due to the in-person hearing, unless, by way of exception, the Expert orders for such costs to be split.23.Default(a) If a party without due cause fails to comply with the time periods laid down in these Rules of procedure or specified by the Expert, the Expert shall decide on the request on the basis of the case file. Paragraphs 11(c) and 14(b) remain unaffected.(b) If one party without due cause fails to comply with a provision of these Rules of procedure or an instruction issued by the Expert, the Expert may draw such inferences therefrom as he considers appropriate.24.Decision(a) The Expert shall decide on the request on the basis of the pleadings of both parties and the submitted documents in conformity with these Rules of procedure.(b) The Expert may only order the deletion or transfer of the domain name, depending on the remedy requested in the request, or reject the request.(c) The Expert shall grant the request if the registration or use of the domain name constitutes a clear infringement of a right in a distinctive sign which the Claimant owns under the law of Switzerland or Liechtenstein.(d) In particular, a clear infringement of an intellectual property right exists whenboth the existence and the infringement of the claimed Right in a distinctive sign clearly result from the wording of the law or from an acknowledged interpretation of the law and from the presented facts and are proven by the evidence submitted; and
the Respondent has not conclusively pleaded and proven any relevant grounds for defence; and
the infringement of the right justifies the transfer or deletion of the domain name, depending on the remedy requested in the request.(e) The decision shall be issued in writing, be briefly substantiated and indicate its date of issue and the name of the Expert.(f) The Expert shall ensure that the Dispute resolution proceedings proceed with due expedition. In so far as no special circumstances apply, the Expert shall communicate his decision to the Dispute resolution service provider within fourteen (14) calendar days of his appointment, signed in three copies and in electronic form.25.Communication and publication of the decision(a) The Dispute resolution service provider shall transmit one signed written copy of the decision to each party, and an electronic version of the decision to the parties and to the Registry.(b) All decisions made in accordance with these Rules of procedure shall be published unabridged on the Internet, unless the Expert exceptionally excludes part of his decision from publication.26.Implementation of the decision(a) Apart from the case provided for in sub-paragraph (b), a decision ordering the deletion or transfer of the disputed domain name shall be implemented by the Registry upon expiry of a period of twenty (20) working days (as observed in the City of Zürich) from the date of transmission of the electronic version of the decision to the parties and the Registry.(b) If within this period of twenty (20) working days the Respondent sends the Registry an official document concerning the initiation of court proceedings in the jurisdiction to which the Claimant has submitted in accordance with paragraph 12(c)(ii) of these Rules of procedure, the Registry shall not implement the decision until the Registry receives proof, which it considers adequate, of the rejection, dismissal or withdrawal of the court proceedings.(c) Until the implementation of the decision, or until the definitive termination of court proceedings according to sub-paragraph (b), the domain name shall remain blocked.
III.Concluding provisions27.Exclusion of liability
Except in cases of intentional or grossly negligent misconduct, the Dispute resolution service provider, the Registry, a Conciliator or an Expert shall not be liable to the parties for acts and omissions in connection with Dispute resolution proceedings under these Rules of procedure.28.Language versions and amendments to the Rules of procedure(a) These Rules of procedure are equally binding in the German, English, French and Italian version. However, in the event of discrepancies between these language versions the German version shall take precedence.(b) The Registry may amend these Rules of procedure at any time after consultation with the Dispute resolution service provider.(c) Amendments shall enter into force upon expiry of thirty (30) calendar days after the publication of the amended version of these Rules of procedure on the Registry's website. The version applicable to Dispute resolution proceedings is the one in force at the time of submission of the request to the Dispute resolution service provider.
.ch Glossary of Technical Terms
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.
Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Swiss .ch domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.
Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.
Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "126.96.36.199", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.
Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.
Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.
Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.
Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.ch”.
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.
First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.
Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.
General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.
Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.
Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".
Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.
Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.
New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.
Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.
Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.
Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.
Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.
See Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.
Registrar for .ch
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.
Registry Switzerland .ch
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.
Registry Operator for .ch Switzerland
The entity that runs a registry.
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.
The highest level of the domain system.
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.
Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".
Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.
Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.
Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".ch" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.
Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)
Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.
Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.
Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.
Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.