.co.it Domain Registration
- 1 Year 19.95 USD
Registration Time Frame
Yes Details Are Individual .co.it domain registrations allowed?
Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .co.it?
Yes Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .co.it?
Individuals: Passport or ID number from a European Union member country, or Italian Codice Fiscale.
Yes Details Are some .co.it domain names restricted?
No Details Does .co.it domain have a special use?
Yes Details Other information I need to know about .co.it?
No Details Are there any additional fees for .co.it?
No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .co.it?
No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?
Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? Yes Details
Use Our Trustee / Proxy Service!
Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.
Available at Checkout
.co.it Trustee / Proxy Fee: 7.56 USD per 1 Year
.co.it Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee: 0.00 USD
.co.it Domain FAQ
.co.it General FAQ
Italy is a unitary parliamentary republic in Southern Europe. In the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia, while the southern part consists mainly of the Italian Peninsula and many islands including Sicily and Sardinia. The estimated population is approximately 61 million people and the official spoken language is Italian.
The Italian economy is free-market in nature and boasts a high per capita GDP and low unemployment. Italy boasts a cpr144449003101 large number of multinational corporations for its size and a manufacturing sector noted for its niche market and luxury products.
Why should I buy a .co.it domain name?
Italy has a strong and stable economy, and the influx of new business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the needs of the emerging consumer and cpr144449003101 commercial markets. The .co.it extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image and show your commitment to the region to local customers.
What name can I register?
Structure of the name tree
The tree structure of the ccTLD .it has:
- a geographical hierarchy;
- domain names corresponding to ICANN gTLDs;
- reserved domain names assignable only to specific categories;
- reserved domain names which are non-assignable;
- non-reserved, assignable domain names.
Pre-defined geographical structure
A list of domain names of Italian Regions is provided in Appendix A.
These domain names are non-assignable and are an integral part of the pre-defined geographical structure. They allow the registration and maintenance of the domain names that come under it.
A list of domain names of Italian Provinces is provided in Appendix B, which is updated to reflect any changes occurring at an institutional level.
These domain names are non-assignable and are an integral part of the pre-defined geographical structure. They allow the registration and maintenance of the domain names that come under it.
A list of domain names of Italian Towns is provided in Appendix C, which is updated to reflect any changes occurring at an institutional level.
These domain names are non-assignable and are an integral part of the pre-defined geographical structure. They allow the registration and maintenance of the domain names that come under it.
Institution of new regions, provinces and towns
The domain names contained in the list of names belonging to the pre-established geographic structure, registered prior to their inclusion as geographic domain names, may be maintained by the assignees for a maximum period of one year from the date on which same names have been declared non-assignable. After this they will be used in accordance with "Rules for the Assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it Regulation Version 6.1assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it".
Domain names corresponding to ICANN gTLDs
The .it Registry specifically defines the criteria needed for any SLD under .it corresponding to current ICANN gTLDs on the basis of ICANN instructions contained in the document "Unsponsored TLD Agreement: Appendix K".
Domain names mentioned in this charter, where assignable, are considered usable only if they conform to the criteria defined for SLDs.
Unsponsored gTLDs (uTLDs) – generic correspondence
Not assignable as a domain name or SLD.
The list includes the following labels:
Sponsored gTLDs (sTLDs) for certain sectors or categories
Assignable to bodies presented to the Registry by the competent organs of state and thus institutionally placed in charge of the relevant sector.
The delegacy follows the signing of a special "SLD" contract, following implementation by the applicant of all the criteria and technical means needed for maintaining the SLD requested, according to the principles described in documents ICANN ICP1 and ICP2, to which the management criteria adopted by .it Registry refer.
The list includes the following gTLDs:
Reserved domain names assignable to specific categories only
The following are reserved domain names, and as such can only be assigned to the corresponding territorial body:
- the term "regione" below the geographical domain name corresponding to a region or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix A;
- domain names commencing with the term "regione" followed (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") by the geographical name or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix A;
- the names (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") corresponding to the Assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it Regulation Version 6.1official denomination name of the Regional Body, below the ccTLD .it
- the names (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") corresponding to the official denomination of the Regional Body, below the geographical domain name for the region or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix A;
- the term "provincia" below the geographical domain name corresponding to a province or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix B;
- domain names commencing with the term "provincia" followed (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") by the geographical name or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix B;
- the names (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") corresponding to the official denomination of the Provincial Body, below the ccTLD .it;
- the names (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") corresponding to the official denomination of the Provincial Body, below the geographical domain name for the province or its abbreviation, as listed in Appendix B;
- the term "comune" below the geographical domain name corresponding to a town, as listed in Appendix C or the name of a town coinciding with the name of the provincial capital;
- the domain names (with or without the separator "-" or the separator "di") corresponding to the official denomination of the Municipal Body, below the ccTLD .it;
- the names (with or without the separator "-" or the letters "di") corresponding to the official denomination of the Municipal Body, below the geographical domain name corresponding to the town, as listed in Appendix C.
For areas in which, under Italian law, there is more than one official language, the translations of "comune", cpr144449003101 "provincia" and "regione" and composite terms commencing with the translation in the language in question are reserved names.
The following domain names corresponding to Italy are reserved:
Assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it Regulation Version 6.1
Non-assignable reserved domain names
A list of reserved domain names that are not assignable to entities other than the Registry is contained in Appendix D.
The above-stated names are non-assignable either directly below .it or below the pre-defined geographical structure.
What is the registration term allowed for .co.it domain names?
The minimum term for .co.it cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .co.it domain name?
YesAre Individual .co.it domain registrations allowed?
YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .co.it?
YesAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .co.it?Companies: VAT ID or Tax ID from company in the European Union, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Republic of San Marino, Vatican City or Switzerland, or Codice Fiscale from company in Italy.
Individuals: Passport or ID number from a European Union member country, or Italian Codice Fiscale.
YesAre some .co.it domain names restricted?Reserved names, names contrary to the laws of Italy are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.
NoDoes .co.it domain have a special use?
YesOther information I need cpr144449003101 to know about .co.it?Transfers re-set the domain expiration date.
NoAre there any additional fees for .co.it?
NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .co.it?
NoWHOIS Privacy service available?
Yes.co.it Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?
How long does it take to register my .co.it domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .co.it during general availability is Instant. .co.it is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .co.it domain names?
Domain Names must:
- have minimum of 3 and a maximum of 63 characters;
- begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
- use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
- neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
- not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.co.it); and
- not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.co.it).
Trustee Service for .co.it
Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.cpr144449003101
Trustee Service Is Available for this extension
How do I host my .co.it domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .co.it. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
- How do I transfer my .co.it domain name?
Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .co.it requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .co.it domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .co.it domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?
Yes, You can register IDNs in the following languages
- .co.it in Bulgarian
- .co.it in Czech
- .co.it in Danish
- .co.it in Dutch
- .co.it in Estonian
- .co.it in Finnish
- .co.it in French
- .co.it in German
- .co.it in Greek
- .co.it in Hungarian
- .co.it in Icelandic
- .co.it in Irish cpr144449003101
- .co.it in Italian
- .co.it in Latvian
- .co.it in Lithuanian
- .co.it in Maltese
- .co.it in Norwegian
- .co.it in Polish
- .co.it in Portuguese
- .co.it in Romanian
- .co.it in Slovak
- .co.it in Slovenian
- .co.it in Spanish
- .co.it in Swedish
Grace period for .co.it domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .co.it domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .co.it domain names?
You may visit them here: Registro.It.cpr144449003101
.co.it Domains Dispute & Policy
Last Update 20 August 2012. The most recent source for .co.it domains dispute proceedure can be found at: www.nic.it/documents/regulations-and-guidelines/Disputes_resolution.pdf
The "rules for dispute resolution in the Top Level Domain .it country code, hereinafter "Dispute Rules", contain rules for settling disputes that could arise in the assignment and use of domain names in Internet, under the Top Level Domain .it country code which are alternative to court litigation.
The "Dispute Rules" comprise the following parts:
- Procedure for re-assignment of the domain name object of opposition, general principles;
- Technical procedure for domain name re-assignment.
Using the tools envisaged and regulated in the "Dispute Rules", Internet users have available a service to rapidly and inexpensively resolve disputes in accordance with the principles of fairness and equal accessibility to the service.
Using arbitrators appointed by each party, voluntary arbitration can reach a decision regarding the assignment of the domain name.
The "Dispute Rules" also establish, within the context of the services rendered in the broader sense by the Registry, an administered domain name re-assignment procedure to which all the domain name owners registered under the ccTLD .it are subject; this procedure deals only with the reassignment of the domain name.
The regulation described has no legal value and can therefore be interrupted by the parties at any moment through recourse to the ordinary justice system.1.1 Revisions of this document
Versions of this document following 2.0 are considered revisions.2. Arbitration2.1 Arbitration clause
The assignee of a domain name can decide to submit to voluntary arbitration any disputes related to the assignment of that domain name pursuant to this "Dispute Regulation", acknowledging as valid and binding the decisions taken by the arbitration board. Recourse to the arbitration clause can be made at the moment of registration of a domain name, or subsequently, using the specific form included in the guidelines concerning the dispute resolution procedures available on the Registry’s website.2.2 List of arbitrators
The Registry keeps a list of arbitrators comprising experts in the question of domain names.
The nomination of applications by Internet experts is presented to the Registry and submitted to the Regulations' Committee.
The list of arbitrators appointed by the Registry and forming part of the list as of the first point is available on the Registry’s website.2.3 Composition of the Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board comprises three arbitrators of which two chosen by each of the parties and the third, who will act as Chairman of the Arbitration Board, chosen by the two arbitrators.
The party which intends to start the arbitration procedure must appoint its arbitrator in writing sent by registered mail with notification of receipt (reference templates can be found in the legal guidelines) addressed to the counterparty, to the arbitrator it intends to appoint and to the Registry, indicating the name of the arbitrator chosen from those on the list as of point 2.2,
"List of arbitrators", the object of the application to submit to the Arbitration Board, the defacto and legal grounds on which it is based, its conclusions, the domicile and e-mail address as well as the invitation to the other party to appoint its arbitrator from those on the list of arbitrators as of point 2.2above.
The party to which the invitation to appoint an arbitrator is sent must, in turn, no later than 10 (ten) working days following receipt of the communication as of the above point, appoint its arbitrator in the ways indicated in paragraph two of this article. Failure to do so means that the party that sent the invitation may ask that the appointment be made by the Registry; in this case the Registry will appoint the arbitrator no later than 5 (five) working days following the request. The appointment is communicated to the parties by email.
The arbitrators appointed in this way will appoint the Chairman of the Arbitration Board no later than 5 (five) working days following the appointment of the second arbitrator. If the choice is not made within this time limit the most diligent party may ask that the Registry appoint the third Arbitrator; in this case the Registry will make the appointment no later than 5 (five) working days following the request, communicating the name of the chosen Chairman of the Arbitration Board to the parties by email. The Arbitration Board will be considered formed from the day following acceptance of the assignment by the Chairman of said Board.
The arbitrators must pass down judgement no later than 90 (ninety) days following theestablishment of the Arbitration Board.2.4 Procedure before the Arbitration Board
The Chairman of the Arbitration Board can appoint a secretary to assist the Board during the procedure and draw up the minutes of the meetings during which the parties or their representatives will be heard.
The Arbitration Board is entitled to regulate the works in the way it deems fitting providing that the principles of the adversarial system are respected. In any case it must grant the parties a time period of not less than 10 (ten) working days to present their defence and documents and a further period of not less than 10 (ten) working days for the replies and it will personally summon the parties to hear them interpartes if this is requested even by just one of the parties. The parties can be represented by another person before the Arbitration Board subject to the fact that the Arbitration Board may decide not to hear the parties personally.
The communications of the Arbitration Board to the parties, the exchange of statements and replies can be made by email unless the parties expressly request hardcopy or if it is necessary to exchange or examine original documents that cannot be transmitted by email.2.5 Inquiry powers of the Arbitration Board
Should serious reasons exist, on request of one of the parties, the Arbitration Board is entitled to take protective measures regarding the domain name assigned and object of opposition. These measures are implemented by the Registry.
When an inquiry is necessary, the Arbitration Board can delegate same to just one of the arbitrators. The Registry must provide the Arbitration Board with all the information requested.2.6 Decision of the Arbitration Board
The arbitrators decide fairly, as amiable compositeurs, on the basis of these "Dispute Rules" and the standards of the Italian legal system.
The Chairman of the Arbitration Board communicates the final decision to the parties and to the Registry by registered mail with notification of receipt. The decisions of the Arbitration Board are filed with the registry available to the members forming part of the list as of point 2.2 above "List of arbitrators". The arbitration decision is made public unless otherwise requested by either party.
The decision of the Arbitration Board is final.
The decisions of the Arbitration Board are enforced by the Registry no later than 5 (five) working days following receipt of the decision.2.7 Fee of the Arbitration Board and expenses
With the decision, the arbitrators also settle their fee and that of the secretary of the Board, charging same in full or in part to the losing party. On request even of just one of the parties, the Board can also order the losing party to refund in full or in part the costs borne for the proceedings by the winning party, determining them, if pertinent, at the discretion of the Board.3. Procedure for domain name re-assignment subject to opposition procedure, general principles3.1 Applicability
The registered domains subject to opposition procedure in accordance with article 5.1 of the "Rules of assignment and management of domain names under the ccTLD .it" can be, on request of the challenger, subject to this re-assignment procedure in accordance with the provisions of article 4.1of these Rules.
The re-assignment procedure applies to all domain names registered in the ccTLD .it.3.2 Nature
The aim of the procedure is to check the right of use or legal availability of the domain name and that the domain has not been registered and maintained in mala fide. The outcome of the procedure can only be the re-assignment of a domain name.
The procedure has no legal validity and as such does not preclude the parties’ right to appeal, also subsequently, to the law court or arbitration.3.3 Re-assignment procedure, arbitration and recourse to law court
The Procedure is carried out by specific organizations, compliant with the requirements set by the Registry, subject to the opinion of the Rules Committee, called Out-of-court Dispute Resolution Service Providers (hereinafter PSRD).
The choice of PSRD that will perform the re-assignment procedure is taken by the party whichstarted the opposition procedure. The costs of the procedure are borne in full by the party that started same.
The procedure cannot be activated if the domain name opposed is already pending decision before the court of law or an arbitration decision pursuant to article 806 of the Code of Civil Procedure; that is, the arbitration envisaged by article 0 "Arbitration".
If the judgement by a court judge, compulsory arbitration in accordance with article 806 of the Code of Civil Procedure or the arbitration as of article 0 of these "Dispute Rules" are introduced while this procedure is ongoing, same will automatically be interrupted.3.4 Sources
The re-assignment procedure is regulated by the provisions of the "Procedure for domain name re-assignment subject to opposition procedure, general principles" and "Technical procedure for domain name re-assignment" contained in these "Dispute Rules".3.5 Control of Dispute Resolution Service Providers (PSRD)
Verification of the existence of the requirements by the organizations that request the performance of the procedures and control of the work of these organizations is entrusted to the Registry along with the Rules Committee according to the standards contained in the "Procedure for qualifying out-of-court dispute resolution Service Providers within the context of the ccTLD .it". In the case of repeated breaches of the procedural standards by a dispute resolution service provider, the Registry can exonerate it from the performance of the procedures, subject to the opinion of the Rules Committee.3.6 Transfer of the domain name object of opposition
Domain names for which a third party (called "petitioner") makes the following claims are subject to re-assignment:a) the domain name object of opposition is identical to or such as to cause confusion with a 7Dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it Regulations Version 2.0trademark or other distinctive business sign, for which same third party claims rights, or to his name and surname; and thatb) the present assignee (called "defendant") has no right to the domain name object of opposition and, finally, thatc) the domain name has been registered and is used in mala fide.
If the petitioner proves the existence of conditions "a)", and "c)" and the defendant does not prove in turn that he has the right to the domain name object of opposition, the latter is transferred to the petitioner.
As regards point "b)" of this article, the defendant will be considered to have the right to the domain name object of opposition if he can prove that:d) before receiving news of the opposition in good faith he used or objectively prepared to use the domain name or a corresponding name for the offer of goods and services to the public; ore) that he is known personally as an association or business enterprise with the same name as the registered domain name even if the relative trademark has not been registered orf) he is making a legitimate non-commercial use or commercial use of the domain name without the intention of misleading the petitioner’s clients or of breaching the registered trademark.3.7 Proof of registration and maintenance of the domain in mala fide
The following circumstances, if demonstrated, will be considered proof of registration and use of the domain in mala fide:1) circumstances that lead to the conclusion that the domain name has been registered with the primary aim of transferring, granting in use or in any other way transferring the domain name to the petitioner, owner of a name which is the object of an acknowledged right or one established by national or European law, or to a competitor of said for monetary or other compensation, which is higher than the costs reasonably borne by the defendant for the registration and maintenance of the domain name;2) the circumstance that the domain name has been registered by the defendant to prevent the owner of the right to a name, trademark, denomination (also geographic) or other distinctive sign recognized by national or European law from using same name, denomination or other distinctive sign in a domain name corresponding to said and it is used for activities in competition with those of the petitioner or, for public organizations, judiciary or other state bodies, in such a way as to mislead the public searching for information regarding institutional activities;3) the circumstance that the domain name has been registered by the defendant with the primary aim of damaging the business of a competitor or of usurping the petitioner’s name and surname;4) the circumstance that, in using the domain name, it is intentionally used to attract, with the purpose of making profit, Internet users, creating the probability of confusion with a name covered by a recognized right or one established by national and/or European law or with the name of a public body;5) the registered domain name is a proper name or the name of a public or private body for which no demonstrable connection between the owner of the domain name and the domain name registered exists.
The above list merely gives some examples and is not exhaustive. The Board of experts can therefore find elements of male fide in the registration and use of the domain name also from circumstances other than those listed above.3.8 Plurality of procedures
In the case of several procedures being started for a single domain name, those started after the first one are suspended pending the outcome of the first one. If the first procedure started ends with the transfer to the petitioner of the name object of opposition, the other procedures are suspended.3.9 Re-proposal of a procedure
A procedure can be re-proposed by the same parties for the same domain name when new facts emerge at the outcome of the decision whichjustify the commencement of a new procedure or such facts were not known during the first procedure.3.10 Role of the Registry
The Registry does not go into the merit of the procedure and is not responsible for the work of the PSRDs that manage the procedures.3.11 Publication of the decisions
The list of the procedures underway and the decisions on procedures are made public on the Registry’s website and on that of the PSRD to which the Board that took the decision belongs except in cases where said Board, in exceptional cases (for example, when the Board considers that publication could seriously damage the image and reputation of both parties or one of them) and with justified grounds it decides not to publish it either in full or in part.3.12 Implementation of the decision
Bearing in mind the provisions of article 4.16below, "Notice of the decision to the parties and to the Registry", in the case where the Board decides to re-assign the domain name object of opposition its decision will be implemented by the Registry unless it receives, no later than 15 (fifteen) days following the date on which the Board's decision is received an appropriately documented communication from the defendant proving that a legal procedure has begun regarding the domain name object of opposition. If the assumptions exist and the party which began the above-stated legal procedure intends to exploit the deadline as of article three below, said party must state and justify this intention in the same communication.
The communication as of the above point must be supplemented, within the following 10 (ten) days, with a photocopy of the introductory deed of the regularly served judgement; failing this, the Registry re-assigns the domain name.
Solely in the case where the introductory deed of the judgement has to be served in or from a foreign country, the deadline for the presentation of the photocopy of the served deed (at the end of which without presentation the Registry will re-assign the domain name) is 30 (thirty) days, starting from the date on which the Registry received the communication as of paragraph one.
In the case where the legal procedure is suspended by the party in question, the Registry enforces the decision of the Board.4. Technical procedure for domain name re-assignment4.1 Introduction of the Procedure
All individuals or corporate bodies having the requirements for registration of a domain name under ccTLD .it can start a re-assignment procedure with an out-of-court disputes resolution service provider (PSRD) qualified by the Registry of domain names of the ccTLD .it
(Registry) in the ways envisaged by article 9 of the "Procedure for qualifying out-of-court dispute resolution Service Providers within the context of the ccTLD .it" at its discretion.
The procedure can also be started on one’s own behalf and on behalf of individuals or corporate bodies not belonging to the European Union providing that:a) the petitioner is acting as licensee under a licence right explicitly recognised by the holder, and this is mentioned and proved during the re-assignment procedure; orb) the petitioner is acting under an explicit legitimate concession of another right the breach of which has a bearing on the re-assignment procedure, and this is mentioned and proved in the re-assignment procedure.
If the chosen PSRD cannot, through impediment or other reasons, examine the complaint submitted to it, it will inform the petitioner who shall be able to submit the complaint to another PSRD of its choice.
If the procedure is submitted by an entity not having the requirements for registering the domain name in the ccTLD .it, the complaint must be rejected through incapacity to sue. To this end the PSRDs are bound to explain this condition on their websites.4.2 Content of the complaint
The complaint must be sent to the PSRD in two hard copies and electronic format and must:1) indicate what the domain name (or domain names) subject of the complaint is (are) and its (their) current assignees;2) contain the express request that the domain be subjected to the re-assignment procedure;3) indicate the name, postal and email address, telephone and fax number of the petitioner and any person authorised to represent it in the administrative procedure;4) indicate whether the petitioner requires the appointment of a Board of three members or a single expert to decide the proceedings and, in case of a Board of three experts, indicate the names of three candidates from whom to select one of the Board members (the candidate’s names must of necessity be included in the list of experts accredited at the chosen PSRD);5) specify the distinctive mark, the name and surname or the trademark on which the complaint is based and, for each distinctive mark, or trademark, describe the goods or services, if existing, that distinguish that distinctive mark or trademark (the petitioner can also describe separately the goods or services that it intends to distinguish with said distinctive mark or trademark in the future);6) specify the reasons for the complaint included therein, in particular:a) the reasons by which the domain name, or domain names, are identical to or can be confused with a distinctive mark, name or trademark which the petitioner enjoys exclusive rights for;b) if known, the reasons by which the defending holder of the domain name object of opposition does not have legitimate rights or interest over the domain name object of complaint; andc) the circumstances from which it can be deduced that the domain name was registered and is used in mala fide according to the provisions of Article 3.7above "Proof of registration and maintenance of the domain in mala fide".7) indicate any other pending or concluded legal proceedings that it knows of regarding the domain name object of complaint;8) conclude with the following declaration signed by the petitioner or its representative: "The petitioner declares that its claims and the provisions required concerning the domain name registration, this dispute and its resolution are exclusively addressed to the domain name holder and expressly waives any claim against:a) the PSRD for the administrative procedure and the persons appointed to the Board, with the exception of fraudulent behaviour;b) the Registry, including its administrators, employees and appointees.c) The petitioner declares and guarantees that, to the best of its knowledge, the information contained in this complaint is complete and truthful and that the complaint is not lodged for illicit purposes.";9) attach, in duplicate, every document or other evidence supporting the complaint, including, if it be the case, proof of registration of the distinctive mark or trademark to which the complaint refers. An index of the attachments must be produced together with the attachments;10) attach a copy of the registered letter of opposition drawn up pursuant to article 5.1 "Introduction of the opposition" of the Rules of assignment and maintenance of domain names in the ccTLD .it;11) contain authorization to process the personal data shown in the complaint.10 Dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it Regulations Version 2.04.3 Checking the complaint
Once the copy of the complaint has been received by e-mail, the PSRD checks it is formally in order on the basis of these regulations.cpr144449003101
If the PSRD notes formal omissions or irregularities in the complaint, it immediately informs the petitioner, indicating the mistake found in the complaint. The petitioner has 6 (six) days to remedy the defects found. After this term and if the petitioner has not remedied the formal defects found, the complaint is filed, without prejudice to the petitioner’s right to start other proceedings.
If the complaint is formally correct, the PSRD informs the Registry by e-mail that it has received it. This communication must show:a) the petitioner’s name;b) its domicile or registered office;c) the domain name for which re-assignment is requested;d) the name of the Registrant of the domain name object of opposition and, if indicated by the petitioner or available to the public in the DBNA, the postal and email address of the Registrant.
If:1) the petitioner has not indicated the address of the Registrant on the complaint or;2) the address is other than that shown in the DBNA, or;3) it is not visible by means of interrogation of the DBNA;
the Registry within 4 (four) working days will inform the PRSD of the Registrant’s postal address and, if present in the DBNA, the email address.
The data contained in the procedure commencement communication, sent by the PSRD to the Registry, are considered confirmed in the absence of specific communication from the Registry within 4 (four) working days following said communication.
The PSRD, having checked that the petitioner has paid the amount due for the procedure and having received the hard copy of the complaint and related documents, communicates the complaint to the assignee of the domain name object of opposition in the ways established in Article 4.4below.4.4 Notice of complaint to the assignee of the domain name object of opposition
Notice of the complaint is sent by the PSRD to the holder of the domain name object of opposition by registered post with notification of receipt with the complaint itself and the documents attached to it by the petitioner to the address held in the DBNA by the Registry.
The complaint is considered received by the holder of the domain name object of opposition (hereinafter, defendant) when:a) it receives the registered letter containing the complaint and documentation; orb) in the event of the registered letter not being collected, at the end of the period it is kept at the post office; orc) in the event of the addressee not being at the address shown in the Registry’s DBNA, when the post office tried to deliver the registered letter.
The decision as of Article 3.12"Implementation of the decision" must contain a description of all the actions carried out by the PSRD to make the defendant aware that a complaint exists against it.4.5 Notices during the course of the procedure
Once the procedure has started, each notice to the parties is made by the PSRD by e-mail to the addresses shown by the parties in their written pleas or in the registry’s DBNA. Notices are drawn up in the language indicated in Article 4.11 "Language of the proceedings" and sent in text format.
The parties have the right to request to receive notices from the PSRD through other means, as well as via e-mail, if they pay any extra cost set by the PSRD.
Every communication the PSRD makes by email to the parties must always be sent in carbon copy to the Registry at this address:firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Parties are bound to promptly inform the PSRD and the Registry of any change of address. Otherwise, all notices are understood to have been sent validly to the previously known address.
Unless otherwise provided for, all terms starting from the sending of a notice by the PSRD shall start from the first data of the notice being sent.
All notices relating to the procedure must be sent to the PSRD which will send them to the Board and the parties.4.6 Start of the procedure and defendant’s answer
The re-assignment procedure is considered to have started when the holder of the domain name object of opposition is informed of the complaint in accordance with the provisions of Article 4.4above "Notice of the complaint to the assignee of the domain name object of opposition". The PSRD will inform the petitioner and the Registry of the start of the procedure.
The defendant can send its reply and documents to the PSRD within 25 (twenty-five) days of the date of the start of the procedure. The reply and documents must be sent in duplicate hard copy. Moreover, the reply alone must be sent by e-mail to the PSRD.
The reply must:a) counter all allegations and affirmations contained in the complaint and include all the reasons for which the defendant (domain name holder) deems it can keep the registration and use the domain name object of opposition.b) indicate the name, postal and email address, telephone and fax number of the defendant (domain name holder) and any person authorised to represent it in the re-assignment procedure;c) if the petitioner has asked that the dispute be decided by a Board of three experts, provide the name of three candidates from whom to select one of the Board members (the candidate’s names must of necessity be included in the list of experts accredited at the chosen PSRD);d) indicate any other pending or concluded legal proceedings that it knows of regarding the domain name object of complaint;e) conclude with the following declaration signed by the defendant or its representative: The undersigned defendant declares and guarantees that, to the best of its knowledge, the information contained in this answer is complete and truthful".f) attach the documents or other evidence that the defendant intends to submit to the Board complete with an index.g) contain authorization to process the personal data shown in the complaint.
In exceptional cases and on the defendant’s motion, the PSRD can extend the term for depositing the reply. If the petitioner and the defendant agree in writing to an extension of the term, the PSRD is bound to allow it.
Once the reply has been received by e-mail, the PSRD will inform the petitioner.
If the defendant does not send any answer, the Board will decide the dispute on the basis of the complaint alone, unless exceptional circumstances occur.4.7 Appointment of the Board
Each PSRD keeps and makes available to the public over the Internet a list of names of accredited experts and their qualifications.
If the petitioner does not request the appointment of a Board of three experts, the PSRD will appoint a one-man Board comprising one person chosen from the list of its accredited experts within 5 (five) days of receiving the answer. Costs for the one-man Board are entirely borne by the petitioner.
If the petitioner asks that the dispute be resolved by a Board of three experts, the PSRD will appoint the three experts in the manner shown in the following paragraphs of this article. Costs for the Board of three experts are entirely borne by the petitioner.
If the petitioner has opted for the Board of three experts, the PSRD will appoint one expert per party, one chosen from the names indicated by the petitioner, the other chosen from those indicated by the defendant.
Should one or more experts chosen by the PSRD from those indicated by the parties not accept appointment within 5 (five) days of their being informed, the PSRD can appoint the Board by choosing one or both experts directly from its own list. In any case, the third expert is appointed by the PSRD choosing from the names shown in a list of five candidates submitted by the PRSD to the parties; selection from the five candidates is made by the PSRD trying to reconcile within reason the each party’s preferences which they can specify within 5 (five) days of receiving the list as of above.
The Board is considered formed when the PSRD receives acceptance by the expert, if the only one, or the third expert, in the case of a Board of three experts. With the Board being formed, the PSRD informs the parties of the names of the designated experts and the date within which, barring exceptional circumstances, the Board will give its decision on the complaint.4.8 Impartiality and independence
Each expert is free to accept or refuse appointment in individual re-assignment procedures.
The expert must be impartial and independent and, before accepting the appointment, must point out to the PSRD the existence of any circumstance that may cast doubts on his independence and impartiality. If, at any time during the procedure, there arise circumstances that may cast doubts on the expert’s independence and impartiality, the latter is obliged to promptly inform the PRSD of this. In this case, the PRSD has the right to appoint another expert as a replacement.
If the expert does not accept the appointment within 5 (five) days of nomination, the PRSD shall appoint a new expert.4.9 Communications between the parties and the Board
No party or its representative may correspond unilaterally with the experts appointed to decide on the complaint. All communications between one party and the Board, experts or PRSD must be transmitted to an administrator appointed by the PRSD in the manner as of Article 4.5 above "Notices during the course of the procedure".4.10 Board’s Powers
The Board establishes the procedure for carrying out the proceedings in a manner compatible with the "Rules of assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it" and the "Rules for dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it". In any case, the Board ensures that the petitioner and defendant are treated impartially and that each of these is guaranteed equal right to plead.
The Board ensures that the proceedings take place with the due haste. In exceptional cases, the Board, at the request of one of the parties or the office, may permit extensions to the terms provided for.
The terms shown, unless explicitly indicated otherwise, are mandatory. Failure to observe the terms leads to forfeiture.
The Board determines the admissibility, significance and pertinence of the evidence and evaluates it freely.
The Board may, at the request of one of the parties, arrange the hearing into several reassignment procedures pending before the same PSRD between the same parties for differentdomain names.4.11 Language of the proceedings
The re-assignment procedure is conducted in Italian. It is the Board’s right to decide, taking into account the circumstances of the single procedure and on request from one of the parties, whether to conduct it in another language.
The Board can order that documents produced in any language other than Italian be accompanied by a full or partial translation into the language of the proceedings.4.12 Clarifications and further pleas
In addition to the complaint and the answer, the Board can, at its discretion, request further clarification and documents from each of the parties.
If both parties so request, the Board is bound to concede further terms, no less than 7 (seven) days, for the deposit of written pleas or production of documents. In ordering these terms to be conceded, the Board also determines the method of communication and deposit.
In the event of the Board conceding the parties terms for further briefs or production of documents, the term for the decision is postponed to the fifteenth day after the term fixed for the deposit of the parties’ last written plea.4.13 Form of the Procedure
The re-assignment procedure is as a rule carried out entirely in writing.
Nevertheless the Board can decide, at the parties’ request, and at its own discretion and in exceptional cases, to question the parties personally or to admit evidence from witnesses.
In this case, the Board takes suitable measures to govern the method for carrying out the hearing fixed for the interrogation, determining the additional costs for these proceedings.
These costs are borne by the party that asked for the examination or evidence from witnesses, and must be paid to the PSRD before the hearing. If the amount is not paid within the term, the party forfeits the evidence or the examination.4.14 Forfeitures
If a party does not observe a term provided for by these rules or fixed by the Board, it loses the right to complete the act, unless exceptional circumstances occur, and the Board shall decide on the complaint.
If a party does not comply with any duty provided for by these rules or any request from the Board, the latter can deduce whatever it deems most appropriate from that behaviour.4.15 Decision
The Board makes its decision on the complaint on the basis of the affirmations made by the parties and the documents produced and, in any case, in compliance with the Rules of assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it" as well as the "Rules for dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it" and the principles of the Italian legal system.
Unless exceptional circumstances occur, the Board informs the PSRD of its decision on the complaint within 15 (fifteen) days of it being formed or within the extended term in compliance with the last paragraph of Article 4.12"Clarifications and further pleas".
If the Board comprises three experts, a majority decision is taken.
The Board’s decision is in writing, with its reasons, the date of publication and the name (or names) of the expert(s).
If the Board deems that the dispute does not lie within the remit fixed by the "Rules for dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it", it expressly states this in its decision.
If, at the end of the proceedings, the Board is convinced that the complaint was submitted in mala fide or to discredit the domain name holder, it decides that the complaint was submitted in mala fide and this constitutes an abuse (reverse domain name hijacking).4.16 Notice of the decision to the parties and the Registry
Within 4 (four) days of receiving the Board’s decision, the PSRD emails the whole text of the decision to the petitioner, the defendant and the Registry. The decision is also sent by ordinary post to the parties or their representatives.
If the Board has ordered the transfer of the domain name object of opposition, the Registry immediately informs the petitioner, defendant and PSRD of the date when in intends to implement the decision.
Unless the Board determines otherwise, the PSRD publishes the decision in full and the date of its implementation on a website accessible to the public. In any case, the part of the decision stating that the complaint was made in mala fide, as of the last paragraph of Article 4.15"Decision", is always published.
Before the decision each party can ask the Board that its name and details be omitted in the publication of the decision. In this case the PSRD is bound to omit those details in the text of the decision made public on its website.4.17 Pendency
Parties, which undertake judicial or arbitration proceedings with the domain name object of opposition as object or know of such proceedings, are bound to inform the PSRD of this.4.18 Closure of the Procedure
The proceeding can only be declared closed by the Board.
The board declares the procedure closed:a) if the parties reach an agreement before the Board’s decision;b) if, whilst the re-assignment procedure is pending, one party undertakes judicial or arbitration proceedings concerning the ownership of the domain name object of opposition;c) if facts arise that make it superfluous or impossible to proceed with the procedure;d) if, during the re-assignment procedure, it emerges that there is already judicial or arbitration proceedings in progress between the parties concerning the ownership of the domain name object of opposition.
If the above-mentioned reasons for closure arise before the Board is appointed, the PSRD appoints the Board without delay so that it can close the procedure. In this case, the terms provided for by the following paragraph for the Board’s decisions cannot start before the Board is formed.
If the reason for closing the procedure was communicated or confirmed to the PSRD by both parties, or if it is documented in writing, the Board declares the proceedings closed within 10 days of it having documentary proof or confirmation by both parties of the existence of the reason for closure.
In other cases, the PSRD informs the parties without delay of the existence of the reason for closure and fixes a term of ten days for them to object to the closure.
Within 5 days after the deadline for objection being reached, the Board:if it deems the objection invalid or if no party has objected to the related term, declares the procedure closed; if it deems the objection valid, orders the proceedings to continue. In this case, the terms for the decision as of paragraph 2 of Article 4.15"Decision" start from the date when the objection was accepted.4.19 Dismissal of a complaint
The PSRD can dismiss a complaint directly, only if:a) the petitioner has not put right the irregularities in the complaint within the 6 (six) days of which it was informed pursuant to paragraph 2 of Article 4.3above "Checking of the complaint";b) the PSRD has not received the payment due to it from the petitioner within 6 (six) days of receiving the complaint.
In the event of dismissal, the complaint can be resubmitted.4.20 Costs
The petitioner must pay the PSRD a fixed initial fee, which is determined by each PSRD, on submitting the complaint and for the amount asked. In any case, the petitioner bears all the PSRD’S costs, unless otherwise provided for by the fifth paragraph of this article.
The amounts paid by the petitioner to the PSRD are acquired by it in any event, even in the case of the procedure’s closure or suspension, unless the Board deems, in exceptional cases, that the petitioner should be partially reimbursed.
The PSRD cannot start an administrative procedure before the petitioner has paid the initial costs pursuant to the first paragraph of this article.
If the PSRD does not receive the payment within 6 (six) days of receiving the complaint, the complaint shall be considered abandoned and the procedure shall be dismissed without prejudice to the petitioner’s right to resubmit it.
In exceptional cases, e.g. if there is a personal examination, the PSRD may ask the parties to pay the additional costs which are determined by the Board pursuant to Article 4.13above "Form of the procedure".4.21 PSRDS’ and experts’ liability
Except in the case of fraud or gross negligence on contemplation of the event, neither the PSRD not the experts can be held liable to a party for any action or omission relating to the reassignment procedure.4.22Procedure rules
The "Rules of assignment and management of domain names in the ccTLD .it" and the "Rules for dispute resolution in the ccTLD .it" in force at the time the complaint is submitted to the PSRD are applied to the re-assignment procedure.4.23RDS' Procedure for sending electronic communications
Every communication the PSRD makes by email to the parties must always be sent in carbon copy to the Registry at this address:email@example.com.
.co.it Glossary of Technical Terms
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.
Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Italian .co.it domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.
Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.
Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "18.104.22.168", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.
Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.
Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.
Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.
Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.co.it”.
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.
First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.
Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.
General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.
Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.
Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".
Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.
Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.
New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.
Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.
Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.
Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.
Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.
See Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.
Registrar for .co.it
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.
Registry Italy .co.it
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.
Registry Operator for .co.it Italy
The entity that runs a registry.
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.
The highest level of the domain system.
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.
Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".
Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.
Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.
Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".co.it" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.
Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)
Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.
Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.
Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.
Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.