.com.na Domain Registration

Namibia Domain - .com.na Domain Registration

Top Selling Namibian Domains



.com.na Registry logo

Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 799.99 USD
  • 2 Years 1,375.98 USD
  • 3 Years 2,015.97 USD
  • 4 Years 2,623.97 USD
  • 5 Years 3,199.96 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame

immediately up to 48 hours


Requirements

Yes Details Are Individual Namibia .com.na registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for Namibia .com.na?

No Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for Namibia .com.na?

No Details .com.na Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

Yes Details Are some .com.na domain names restricted?

No Details Does .com.na domain have a special use?

No Details Other information I need to know about .com.na?

No Details Are there any additional fees for .com.na?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .com.na?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details


.com.na Domain FAQ

.com.na General FAQ
Namibia is a country in Southern Africa. It gained independence from South Africa in 1990 after the Namibian War of Independence. Namibia has a rich cultural history dating back to around the 14th century AD. It has an estimated population of approximately 2.1 million people and the official language is English.

The Namibian economy is tied to that of South Africa as a result of копирайт, 101домен their common history. It is mainly supported by mining, agriculture, manufacturing and tourism.

Why should I buy a .com.na domain name?
Namibia has a stable economy, and the influx of new business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the needs of the emerging consumer and commercial копирайт, 101домен markets. The .com.na extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image and show your commitment to the region to local customers.
What name can I register?

Acceptable Use Policy
Written by Administrator
Saturday, 12 September 2009 22:17

In order to assist users of the .NA® network, and in line with international practice, NA-NiC has developed the following Acceptable Use Policy:

INTRODUCTION.

This Acceptable Use Policy ("AUP") sets out the actions prohibited to users of the Namibian Network Information Centre (cc) ("NA-NiC") Network ("NA-NiC Network"). This AUP is in addition to rules governing qualifications for registration. "Users" are defined as anyone who uses or accesses the .NA® Domain Name Register, who has responsibility for one or more host records in the .NA® zone files generated from the .NA® Register, registrants of a .NA® country code Top Level ("ccTLD") Domain Name (".NA® Domain Name"), and/or users of hardware, name servers, bandwidth, telecommunications transport, zone files, e-mail routing services, any other Domain Name resolution systems and services in the .NA® Register and/or zone.

This policy applies to all .NA® Domain Names (which end in the two letter suffix .NA® ), including second-level .NA® Domain Names (such as com.NA) and sub second-level Domain Names (such as omadhina.co.NA) which resolve as a result of sub-delegation. Use of a .NA® Domain Name or the NA-NiC Network in a manner that contravenes this AUP, may result in the suspension or revocation of a registrants right to use a .NA® Domain Name or to continue to be recognized as the registrant of a .NA® Domain Name. Suspension or revocation may apply to one or more .NA® Domain Names for which User is a registrant in addition to a particular .NA® Domain Name which may have given rise to a particular complaint.

NA-NiC reserves the right to modify or update this AUP at any time and any such modifications or restatements shall be posted on NA-NiC's website at http://www.NA-nic.com.NA from time to time. NA-NiC will use reasonable commercial efforts to inform designated contacts in the event of changes to this AUP. Such efforts may include posting the revised AUP on NA-NiC's website and/or sending email notice that this AUP has been modified or updated.

NA-NiC supports the free flow of information and ideas over the Internet. Accordingly, NA-NiC does not actively screen or monitor, nor does it exercise editorial control over the content of any message or web site made accessible by Domain Name resolution services in the .NA® ccTLD.

NA-NiC may discontinue, suspend, or modify the services provided to any .NA® Domain Name (for example, through modification of .NA® zone files), to address alleged violations of this AUP (described further below). NA-NiC may determine in its sole discretion whether use of the NA-NiC network or a .NA® Domain Name is prima facie violation of this AUP. NA-NiC or affected parties may utilize the Council of Country Code Administrators ("CoCCA") AUP Complaint Resolution Services ("CRS") to resolve disputes over interpretation and implementation of this AUP, as described more fully in the CoCCA AUP CRS.

Users of the NA-NiC Network are obliged and required to ensure that their use of a .NA® Domain Name or the NA-NiC Network is at all times lawful and in accordance with the requirements of this AUP and applicable laws of Namibia, the operation of the .NA® ccTLD falling with the jurisdiction and being governed by the laws of Namibia.

This AUP should be read in conjunction with the CoCCA Complaint Resolution Policy and other applicable agreements, policies, laws and regulations.

By way of example, and without limitation, agreement between the User and Registrar may set forth representations and warranties and other terms and conditions, breach of which may constitute non-compliance with this AUP.

PROHIBITED USE.

A "Prohibited use" of the NA-NiC Network or a .NA® Domain Name is a use which is expressly prohibited by provisions of this AUP. Registration of one or more .NA® Domain Names or access to services provided by NA-NiC may be cancelled or suspended for any breach of, or non-compliance with this AUP.

COMPLIANCE WITH LAW.

The NA-NiC Network and .NA® Domain Names must only be used for lawful purposes. The creation, transmission, distribution, storage of, or linking to any material in violation of applicable law or regulation is prohibited. This may include, but is not limited to, the following::
Communication, publication or distribution of material (including through links or framing) that infringes upon the intellectual and/or industrial property rights of another person. Intellectual and/or industrial property rights include, but are not limited to: copyrights (including future copyright), design rights, patents, patent applications, trade marks, rights of personality, and/or trade secret information.:
Use of a .NA® Domain Name in circumstances in which the .NA® Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a personal name, company, business or other legal or trading name as registered with the relevant Namibia agency, or a trade or service mark in which a third party complainant has uncontested rights, including without limitation in circumstances in which:
The use deceives or confuses others in relation to goods or services for which a trade mark is registered in Namibia, or in respect of similar goods or closely related services, against the wishes of the registered proprietor of the trade mark; or
The use deceives or confuses others in relation to goods or services in respect of which an unregistered trade mark or service mark has become distinctive of the goods or services of a third party complainant, and in which the third party complainant has established a sufficient reputation in Namibia, against the wishes of the third party complainant; or
The use trades on or passes-off a .NA® Domain Name or a website or other content or services accessed through resolution of a .NA® Domain as being the same as or endorsed, authorized, associated or affiliated with the established business, name or reputation of another; or
The use constitutes intentionally misleading or deceptive conduct in breach of CoCCA recommendations, or the laws of Namibia; or
The .NA® Domain Name has been used in bad faith, including without limitation the following: The User has used the .NA® Domain Name primarily for the purpose of unlawfully disrupting the business or activities of another person; or
By using the .NA® Domain Name, the User has intentionally created a likelihood of confusion with respect to the third party complainant's intellectual or industrial property rights and the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of website(s), email, or other online locations or services or of a product or service available on or through resolution of a .NA® Domain Name;
For the purpose of unlawfully selling, renting or otherwise transferring the Domain Name to an entity or to a commercial competitor of an entity, for valuable consideration in excess of a User's documented out-of-pocket costs directly associated with acquiring the Domain Name;
As a blocking registration against a name or mark in which a third party has superior intellectual or industrial property rights;
.NA® Domain Name registration which is part of a pattern of registrations where the User has registered Domain Names which correspond to well known names or trade marks in which the User has no apparent rights, and the .NA® Domain Name is part of that pattern;
The .NA® Domain Name was registered arising out of a relationship between two parties, and it was mutually agreed, as evidenced by a writing, that the Registrant would be an entity other than that currently in the register. Unlawful communication, publication or distribution of registered and unregistered know-how, confidential information and trade secrets;
Communication, publication or distribution, either directly or by way of embedded links, of images or materials (including, but not limited to pornographic material and images or materials that a reasonable person as a member of the community of Namibia would consider to be obscene or indecent) where such communication, publication or distribution is prohibited by or constitutes an offense under the laws of Namibia or within the meaning of the CoCCA recommended policies, whether incorporated directly into or linked from a web site, email, posting to a news group, internet forum, instant messaging notice which makes use of Domain Name resolution services in the .NA® ccTLD.
Material that a reasonable member of the community of Namibia would consider pornographic, indecent, and/or obscene or which is otherwise prohibited includes, by way of example and without limitation, real or manipulated images depicting child pornography, bestiality, excessively violent or sexually violent material, sexual activity, and material containing detailed instructions regarding how to commit a crime, an act of violence, or how to prepare and/or use illegal drugs.
Communication, publication or distribution of defamatory material or material that constitutes racial vilification.
Communication, publication or distribution of material that constitutes an illegal threat or encourages conduct that may constitute a criminal offense.
Communication, publication or distribution of material that is in contempt of the orders of a court or another authoritative government actor within Namibia.
Use, communication, publication or distribution of software, technical information or other data that violates export control laws or CoCCA recommendations.
Use, communication, publication or distribution of confidential or personal information or data which violates any right of privacy including confidential or personal information about persons that is collected without their knowledge or consent.

ELECTRONIC копирайт, 101домен MAIL.

NA-NiC expressly prohibits Users of the NA-NiC Network from engaging in the following activities:
Communicating, transmitting or sending unsolicited bulk e-mail messages or other electronic communications ("junk mail" or "Spam") of any kind including, but not limited to, unsolicited commercial advertising, informational announcements, political or religious tracts. Such messages or material may be sent only to those who have expressly requested it. If a recipient asks a User to stop sending such e-mails, then any further e-mail messages or other electronic communications would in such event constitute Spam and violate the provisions and requirements of this AUP.
Communicating, transmitting or sending any material by e-mail or otherwise that harasses, or has the effect of harassing, another person or that threatens or encourages bodily harm or destruction of property including, but not limited to, malicious e-mail and flooding a User, site, or server with very large or numerous pieces of e-mail or illegitimate service requests.
Communicating, transmitting, sending, creating, or forwarding fraudulent offers to sell or buy products, messages about "Make-Money Fast", "Pyramid" or "Ponzi" type schemes or similar schemes, and "chain letters" whether or not the recipient wishes to receive such messages.
Adding, removing, modifying or forging NA-NiC Network or other network header information with the effect of misleading or deceiving another person or attempting to impersonate another person by using forged headers or other identifying information ("Spoofing").

DISRUPTION OF NA-NiC NETWORK.

No-one may use the NA-NiC Network or a .NA® Domain Name for the purpose of:
Restricting or inhibiting any person in their use or enjoyment of the NA-NiC Network or a .NA® Domain Name or any service or product of NA-NiC. Actually or purportedly reselling NA-NiC services and products without the prior written consent of NA-NiC.
Transmitting any communications or activity which may involve deceptive marketing practices such as the fraudulent offering of products, items, or services to any other party.
Providing false or misleading information to NA-NiC or to any other party through the NA-NiC Network.
Facilitating or aiding the transmission of confidential information, private, or stolen data such as credit card information (without the owner's or cardholder's consent).

CONSUMER PROTECTION, FAIR TRADING.

A User using a .NA® Domain Name to sell goods or services over the Internet must provide clear links with sufficient and accurate contact details on such website so that consumers have the ability to contact the seller of such goods or services, and so that customers and prospective customers are clearly advised of any territorial limitations on the offer, sale or provision of any goods or services offered, sold or provided, and of any applicable laws, jurisdiction or CoCCA recommendations. In the event that it is credibly alleged that a .NA® Domain Name registrant has not followed such laws, NA-NiC will furnish the contact details for the registrant in accordance with the NA-NiC Privacy Policy.

NETWORK INTEGRITY AND SECURITY.

Users are prohibited from circumventing or attempting to circumvent the security of any host, network or accounts ("cracking" or "hacking") on, related to, or accessed through the NA-NiC Network. This includes, but is not limited to: accessing data not intended for such user; logging into a server or account which such user is not expressly authorized to access; falsifying a user name or password; probing the security of other networks; executing any form of network monitoring which will intercept data not intended for such user.
Users are prohibited from effecting any network security breach or disruption of any Internet communications including, but not limited to: accessing data of which such User is not an intended recipient; or logging onto a server or account which such User is not expressly authorized to access. For the purposes of sections [integrity] and [disruption], "disruption" includes, but is not limited to: port scans, ping floods, packet spoofing; forged routing information; deliberate attempts to overload a service, and attempts to "crash" host; using the NA-NiC Network in connection with the use of any program, script, command, or sending of messages to interfere with another user's terminal session by any means, locally or by the Internet.
Users who compromise or disrupt NA-NiC Network systems or security may incur criminal or civil liability. NA-NiC will investigate any such incidents and will cooperate with law enforcement agencies if a crime is suspected to have taken place. WHOIS ACCURACY.
In order to facilitate cooperation with law enforcement agencies .NA® Domain Name Registrants are required to provide at registration and maintain correct contact information, for the Registrant, the Administrative Contact, the Billing Contact and the Technical Contact.
This means that the information must be good enough to allow to contact the Registrant quickly at any reasonable time without having to get information from anywhere else; must not be deceptive; (if possible for that type of information) must clearly identify the Registrant; and must be detailed enough to tell exactly who the Registrant is. The Administrative Contact must be an individual who is authorized under the applicable law in the applicable jurisdiction to legally bind the Registrant and to receive service on behalf of the Registrant, and for avoidance of doubt this can not be a Registrar, Reseller, or another similar third party. The Technical Contact must have write authority to the corresponding zone files, and if the Billing Contact is not provided, NA-NiC assumes that the Technical Contact performs this function.
Usually this information is provided and maintained by the Registrar, however, the ultimate responsibility remains with the Registrant. Failure to comply with this requirement will be seen in a serious light by NA-NiC.

NON-EXCLUSIVE, NON-EXHAUSTIVE.

This AUP is intended to provide guidance as to what constitutes acceptable use of the NA-NiC Network and of .NA® Domain Names. However, the AUP is neither exhaustive nor exclusive in which case NA-NiC may, in its sole discretion, reasonably determine whether an action by a User is prohibited use.

COMPLAINTS.

Persons who wish to notify NA-NiC of abusive conduct in violation of this AUP may report the same pursuant to the CoCCA Acceptable Use Policy Enforcement Procedure, which is instituted by submitting to NA-NiC or CoCCA a completed CoCCA Acceptable Use Policy Violation Complaint Form, a copy of which is available at http://www.cocca.cx/index.php/aup-complaints.html.

ENFORCEMENT.

NA-NiC may, in its sole discretion, suspend or terminate a User's service for violation of any of the requirements or provisions of the AUP on receipt of a complaint and/or if NA-NiC believes suspension or termination is necessary to comply with the law, protect the public interest, prevent unlawful activity or protect the health, safety, or privacy of an individual. If immediate action is not required, NA-NiC will work with Registrants and a complainant to remedy violations in accordance with the provisions detailed in the AUP Complaint Resolution Service and Policy to ensure compliance with this AUP violation prior to suspension or terminating service.

LIMITATION OF LIABILITY.

In no event shall NA-NiC be liable to any User of the NA-NiC Network, any customer, nor any third party for any direct, indirect, special or consequential damages for actions taken pursuant to this AUP, including, but not limited to, any lost profits, business interruption, loss of programs or other data, or otherwise, even if NA-NiC was advised of the possibility of such damages. NA-NiC's liability for any breach of a condition or warranty implied by this AUP shall be limited to the maximum extent possible to one of the following (as NA-NiC may determine): supplying the services again; or paying the cost of having the services supplied again.

REMOVAL OF CONTENT RESPONSIBILITY.

At its sole discretion, NA-NiC reserves the right to:
Remove or alter content, zone file data or other material from its servers provided by any person that violates the provisions or requirements of this AUP; or terminate access to the NA-NiC Network by any person that NA-NiC determines has violated the provisions or requirements of this AUP.
In any regard, NA-NiC is not responsible for the content or message of any newsgroup posting, e-mail message, or web site regardless of whether access to such content or message was facilitated by the NA-NiC Network.
NA-NiC does not have any duty to take any action with respect to such content or message by creating this AUP, and Users of the NA-NiC Network are obliged and required to ensure that their use of a .NA® Domain Name or the NA-NiC Network is at all times in accordance with the requirements of this AUP and any applicable laws and/or regulations.

Last Updated on Monday, 26 December 2011 13:08

What is the registration term allowed for .com.na domain names?
.com.na domain names can be registered for копирайт, 101домен 1 to 5 years at a time.
Can anyone register a .com.na domain name?
копирайт, 101домен
How long does it take to register my .com.na domain name?
During general availability it takes approximately immediately up копирайт, 101домен to 48 hours to register your .com.na domain name.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .com.na domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 2 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor копирайт, 101домен end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.com.na); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.com.na).
Trustee Service for .com.na

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.

Trustee Service Is копирайт, 101домен Available for this extension

Trustee service is not available for this extension

How do I host my .com.na domain name?
offers hosting and email service for .com.na . You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales or view our Web Hosting Services.копирайт, 101домен
How do I transfer my .com.na domain name?

To transfer your .com.na domain name to , submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .com.na domain копирайт, 101домен name out of , submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you копирайт, 101домен must update ownership according to .com.na requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)
No. At present the .com.na domain zone does not provide means to hide the information копирайт, 101домен of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .com.na domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?

No, .com.na does not support Internationalized Domain Names

No, .com.na does not support Internationalized Domain Names. You can register full IDNs for

Yes, You can register копирайт, 101домен IDNs in the following languages

Grace period for .com.na domain name?

Is there a grace period for renewal of my .com.na domain name?
.com.na does not have a grace period, it must be renewed by it's expiration.

копирайт, 101домен Is there a redemption period for .com.na domain names?
.com.na does not have a redemption period; once the domain is expired it can not be restored. There may be a time between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again in case you do not pay by the renewal date, your site will be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.

Who is the registry that manages .com.na domain names?
You may visit them here: Namibian Network Information Centre.копирайт, 101домен
.com.na Domains Dispute & Policy
COMPLAINTS.
Persons who wish to notify NA-NiC of abusive conduct in violation of this AUP may report the same pursuant to the CoCCA Acceptable Use Policy Enforcement Procedure, which is instituted by submitting to NA-NiC or CoCCA a completed CoCCA Acceptable Use Policy Violation Complaint Form, a copy of which is available at http://www.cocca.cx/index.php/aup-complaints.html.

CoCCA | Complaint Resolution Service (“CRS”) | Part A - Policy
Version 2.4 | Effective Date | Tuesday, November 15, 11

1. Statement of Purpose
1.1. This Complaint Resolution Service (“Service”) provides a transparent, efficient and cost effective way for the public, law enforcement, regulatory bodies and intellectual property owners to have their concerns addressed regarding use of a Council of Country Code Administrators Incorporated (”CoCCA”) member’s network or services.
1.2. The Service provides a single framework in which cyber-crime, accessibility of prohibited Internet content via a member’s network or services, and abuse of intellectual property rights are addressed. The framework relies on three tiers of review: immediate action to protect the public interest, Amicable Complaint Resolution by an Ombudsman, and where applicable adjudication by an Expert. This CRRS provides an efficient and swift alternative to the Courts. This document (“Part A – Policy”) defines the policy, and the Complaint Resolution Service Procedures document (“Part B – Procedure”)defines the procedures to be followed in addressing a complaint.
2. Background
2.1. CoCCA is a not-for-profit member-owned Incorporated Society. Members administer country code top level domains (ccTLDs) and have granted CoCCA a nonexclusive right to receive and facilitate resolution of complaints involving domain names registered in their respective ccTLDs. This approach benefits members and the public with economies of scale, a harmonized policy framework, and a “single desk” where complaints can be lodged.
2.2. A Shared Registry System (“SRS”) establishes a single register for registering domain names and associated technical and administrative information. Each member maintains a SRS register for the ccTLD they administer.
2.3. The registration of domain names and modification of information associated with such names on the register can be affected only by authorized registrars. Registrars are responsible for the information they collect.
2.4. Neither registrars nor the CoCCA members get involved in complaints regarding who has a better right to be recognized as the registrant of a domain name. Members have, however, adopted Acceptable Use Polices (“AUP”) that govern the use of their network -and by extension any domain name in such member’s ccTLD. Members will undertake actions to ensure compliance with their AUP as directed either by the Courts or as set out in this document.
2.5. This policy may be amended from time to time as described below in paragraph
2.6. Thanks go to the office of the Domain Name Commissioner of New Zealand and Nominet UK for establishing the framework on which this Service is largely based.
3. Definitions

Appeal Panel means a panel appointed by the Ombudsman under Procedure paragraph 17.7;
AUP means the Acceptable Use Policy CoCCA means the Council of County Code CoCCA | Complaint Resolution Service (“CRS”) | Part A - Policy Administrators Incorporated, a member-owned society incorporated in New Zealand;
CoCCA Ombudsman (Ombudsman) means the individual(s) retained by CoCCA to provide informal arms-length mediation of complaints and oversee delegation of complaints to Experts if Amicable Complaint Resolution fails and a Complainant expresses a desire to have the matter adjudicated;
Complainant means a third party who asserts to the CoCCA Complaint Officer the elements set out in paragraph 2.3 of this Policy and according to the Procedure, or, if there are multiple complainants, the 'Lead Complainant' (see Procedure, paragraph 2.2);
Complaint means a complaint submitted to the CoCCA Complaint Officer by a Complainant under Procedure paragraph 2;Complaint Officer – an individual appointed by CoCCA to accept and process the resolution of a complaint in accordance with the procedures set out in the Complaint Resolution Service Procedure document;
Complaint Resolution Service means the service provided by the CoCCA according to this policy and procedure;
Commencement of Complaint Resolution Service proceedings means the date upon which the Complaint Officer transmits notice of commencement of the Complaint to the Parties pursuant to Procedure paragraph 3.3;
Conclusion of Complaint Resolution Service proceedings means the date on which the Parties are notified of a Decision or the date on which the parties amicably settle the Complaint;
Days mean, unless otherwise stated, any calendar day other than Saturday or Sunday; or any public holiday In the Indian Ocean Territories. Decision means the decision reached by the Complaint Officer or Expert and where applicable includes decisions of an appeal panel;
Domain Name means a domain name maintained in a CoCCA member’s register;
Domain Name Hijacking means using the Policy in bad faith in an attempt todeprive a registered domain-name holder the use of a domain name;
Expert means a person appointed to resolve a Domain Name Complaint under paragraphs 7 or 17 of the Complaint Resolution Service Procedure;
Amicable Complaint Resolution means impartial mediation that is conducted under Procedure paragraph 6 to facilitate an acceptable resolution to the Complaint;
ISP means an internet service provider; Party means a Complainant or Respondent and Parties have a corresponding meaning;
Policy means this Policy;
Procedure means the Procedure contained in Complaint CoCCA | Complaint Resolution Service (“CRS”) | Part A - Policy Resolution Service Procedure document (Procedure) for addressing complaints under the Service; Register means the authoritative database and record of domain namesmanaged and operated by a CoCCA member;
Registrant means the entity entered in the Register as registrant with respect to a Domain Name;
Registrar means the entity entered in the Register as registrar with respect to a Domain Name;
Reply means a submission made to the Complaint Officer by a Complainant under Procedure paragraph 5;
Respondent means the entity in whose name or on whose behalf a Domain Name is registered and against whom the Complainant makes a Complaint;
Response means a submission made to the CoCCA Complaint Officer by a Respondent under Procedure paragraph 4;
Rights includes, but are not limited to, rights enforceable under applicable law.;

4. Complaint Resolution Service
4.1. This Policy and Procedure applies to Respondents when a Complainant alleges to the Complaint Officer according to the Procedure, that there has been an Acceptable Use Policy (AUP) violation.
4.2. The Complainant is required to illustrate to the Complaint Officer or Expert on the balance of probabilities there has been an AUP Violation.
5. Evidence of AUP Violation
5.1. A list of factors which may be evidence that there has been an AUP Violation is set out in the applicable CoCCA member’s AUP policy. These polices may be inspected at http://www.cocca.org.nz
5.2. Failure on the Respondent's part to use a Domain Name for the purposes of e-mail or a web site is not in itself evidence that an AUP Violation has occurred.
5.3. There shall be a presumption of AUP Violation if the Complainant proves that the Respondent has been found to have made an AUP Violation in three (3) or more Complaint Resolution Service cases in the two (2) years before the Complaint was filed. This presumption can be rebutted (see paragraph 6.5.
5.4. In making a decision, the Complaint Officer or Expert shall not take into account any evidence of acts or omissions amounting to an AUP Violation or use which occurred more than three (3) years before the date of the Complaint.
6. Demonstration by Respondent that there has not been an AUP Violation
6.1. A non-exhaustive list of factors which may be evidence that there has not been an AUP Violation is set out in paragraphs 6.1.-- 6.3. Before being aware of the Complainant's cause for complaint (not necessarily the Complaint itself), the Respondent has:
a) used or made demonstrable preparations to use the Domain Name or a Domain Name which is similar to the Domain Name in connection with a genuine offering of goods or services;
b) been commonly known by the name or legitimately connected копирайт, 101домен with a mark which is identical or similar to the Domain Name;
c) made legitimate non-commercial or fair use of the Domain Name; or
d) The Domain Name is generic or descriptive and the Respondent is making fair use of it in a way which is consistent with its generic or descriptive character;
6.2. In relation to the AUP, that the Registrant's holding of the Domain Name is consistent with an agreement entered into by the Parties, which agreement is evidenced by a written instrument; or
6.3. In relation to the AUP, that the Domain Name is not part of a wider pattern or series of registrations because the Domain Name is of a significantly different type or character to the other domain names registered by the Respondent.
6.4. Fair use may include sites operated solely in tribute to, or in criticism of, a person or business.
6.5. If paragraph 5.3 applies, the Respondent must rebut the presumption by proving in the Response that the registration of the Domain Name is not an AUP Violation.
Amicable Complaint Resolution
7.1 After the Complaint Officer has received the parties under the Complaint Service Resolution Procedure, it will recommend immediate action or request the Ombudsman to initiate and conduct a period of Amicable Complaint Resolution under paragraph B6 of the Procedure.
8. Without Prejudice
8.1. Documents and information which are 'without prejudice' (or are marked as being 'without prejudice') may be used in submissions and may be considered by the Expert. Notice that the Expert will not consider such materials if:
a) they are generated within Amicable Complaint Resolution; or
b) the Expert believes that it is in the interests of justice that the document or information be excluded from consideration.
9. Appointment of Expert
9.1. If an acceptable resolution cannot be achieved by Amicable Complaint Resolution the Ombudsman will notify the Parties that it will appoint an Expert when the Complainant has paid the applicable fees set out in Procedure paragraph 20.1 within the time specified in paragraph 7.1. The Expert will come to a written Decision.
10. Notification and Publication
10.1. A Decision will be communicated to the Parties according to Procedure paragraph 16 and all Decisions will be published in full on the CoCCA web site.
10.2. Fees are payable by the Complainant or otherwise according to Procedure paragraph 20 only if an acceptable resolution has not been achieved by Amicable Complaint Resolution and once the Ombudsman has notified the Parties that an Expert is to be appointed.
10.3. Decisions may contain Personal Information (as this term is defined in the Privacy Policy), including the contact details of the Parties, and the Parties consent to Personal Information being displayed in this way.
11. Exclusion of Liability
11.1. Neither CoCCA nor its officers, employees or members nor any Expert, Mediator, Registrar or any employee or officer of any such party shall be liable to a party for anything done or omitted, whether negligently or otherwise, in connection with any proceedings under the Complaint Resolution Service unless the act or omission is shown to have been in bad faith.
12. Appeal, Repeat Complaints and Availability of Court Proceedings
12.1. Either Party will have the right under Procedure paragraph 17 to appeal a Decision. The Appeal Panel will consider appeals on the basis of a full review of the matter and may review procedural matters.
12.2. The Ombudsman may refer questions of interpretation of the Policy and Procedure to the Appeal Panel. Any decision rendered as a result of this referral will not affect any Decision in any other previous proceedings under the Complaint Resolution Service.
12.3. The Ombudsman will publish Decisions of the appeal panel. Appeal Decisions will not be binding precedents, but will be of persuasive value to Experts in future decisions.
12.4. The operation of the Complaint Resolution Service will not prevent either the Complainant or the Respondent from submitting the Complaint to an applicable court or decision making body of competent jurisdiction or to an arbitral tribunal of competent jurisdiction. However, any proceeding under this Policy, whether before an Ombudsman, Complaint Officer, Expert, or Appeal Panel, shall be suspended pending the decision of the court, decision making body, or tribunal. The proceeding under this Policy shall only be re-started if directed to do so by the court, decision making body, or tribunal.
12.5. If a Complainant has obtained a Decision in previous Complaint Resolution Service proceedings it will not be reconsidered by an Expert (however there may be rights of appeal, see paragraph 12.1 and Procedure paragraph 17). If the Expert finds that the Complaint is a resubmission of an earlier Complaint which has been resolved, then he or she shall reject the Complaint without consideration of its merits.
12.6. in determining whether a Complaint is a resubmission of an earlier Complaint, or contains a material difference that justifies the Complaint being heard, the Expert shall consider the following questions:
a) Are the Complainant, the Respondent, and the Domain Name at issue the same as in the earlier case?
b) Does the substance of the Complaint relate to acts that occurred prior to or subsequent to the close of submissions in the earlier case?
(c) If the substance of the Complaint relates to acts that occurred prior to the close of submissions in the earlier case, are there any exceptional grounds for the rehearing or reconsideration, bearing in mind the need to protect the integrity and smooth operation of the Policy and Procedure?
(d) Does the substance of the Complaint relate to acts that occurred subsequent to the close of submissions in the earlier Decision? (Acts on which the re-filed Complaint is based should not be, in substance, the same as the acts on which the previous Complaint was based).
12.7. A non-exhaustive list of examples which may be exceptional enough to justify a rehearing under paragraph 12.6.(c) include:
a) serious misconduct on the part of the Expert, a party, witness or lawyer;
b) false evidence having been offered to the Expert;
c) the discovery of credible and material evidence which could not have been reasonably foreseen or known for the Complainant to have included it in the evidence in support of the earlier Complaint;
d) a breach of natural justice.
13. Implementation of Expert Decisions
13.1. The Expert’s powers, as part of a Decision, include powers to direct that a Domain Name should be cancelled, suspended, modified or otherwise amended. The Expert may not, however, make any orders directing a party to pay costs of the Complaint Resolution Service proceedings.
13.2. If the Expert makes a Decision that a Domain Name registration should be cancelled, suspended, modified or otherwise amended, the Ombudsman will implement that
Decision by requesting the CoCCA member(s) responsible for the applicable Register to make the necessary changes to the Register according to the process set out in Procedure paragraph 16. The details set out in the Complaint form will be used unless the Complainant specifies other details in good time. an arbitral tribunal of competent jurisdiction. However, any proceeding under this Policy, whether before an Ombudsman, Complaint Officer, Expert, or Appeal Panel, shall be suspended pending the decision of the court, decision making body, or tribunal. The proceeding under this Policy shall only be re-started if directed to do so by the court, decision making body, or tribunal.If a Complainant has obtained a Decision in previous Complaint Resolution Service proceedings it will not be reconsidered by an Expert (however there may be rights of appeal, see paragraph 12.1 and Procedure paragraph 17). If the Expert finds that the Complaint is a resubmission of an earlier Complaint which has been resolved, then he or she shall reject the Complaint without consideration of its merits.In determining whether a Complaint is a resubmission of an earlier Complaint, or contains a material difference that justifies the Complaint being heard, the Expert shall consider the following questions:
14. Other action
14.1. The Complaint Officer or Ombudsman will not cause any Domain Name registration to be cancelled, activated, deactivated, or otherwise changed except as set out in paragraphs 13 and Procedure paragraph 3.4 and in accordance with the applicable policies and procedures, which are available on the CoCCA website

http://www.cocca.org.nz

14.2. Expiration of a Domain Name that is the Subject of a Complaint.
a) This paragraph 14 shall not affect or change the expiration date of any Domain Name or the post-expiration policies or practices of any ccTLD or Registrar.
b) If a Domain Name which is the subject of Complaint is scheduled to expire, and if the Respondent and/or Registrant does not renew the Domain Name registration term, then the Complainant may, anytime within 30 calendar days of the scheduled expiration date, contact the Registrar and pay to have the Domain Name registration term extended by one year. Any such payment and/or extension shall not change the identity of the Registrant with respect to the Domain Name and shall not create any obligation owed by the Registrant to the Complainant.
15. Transfers During a Complaint
15.1. A Domain Name registration may not be transferred to another Registrar or Registrant (whether it is at the same or a different Registrar):
a) if the electronic form of a Complaint has been received by the CoCCA AUP Complaint Officer or CoCCA Member and the matter is pending the receipt of a valid paper copy to confirm the Complaint (to a maximum of five (5) Days); or
b) relation to the Domain Name or for a period of ten (10) Days after the Parties are notified of a Decision by an Expert, per Procedure paragraph 16.1, unless to the Complainant as a result of a settlement reached between the Parties whether or not pursuant to Amicable Complaint Resolution; or
c) whilst a court proceeding, other Complaint resolution hearing or arbitration in respect of the Domain Name registration is ongoing in an applicable court decision-making body of competent jurisdiction or arbitral tribunal of competent jurisdiction.
15.2. The CoCCA Member may reverse any transfer of a Domain Name registration that does not comply with paragraph 15.1.
15.3. A Respondent may not transfer the Domain Name to another Registrar whilst proceedings under the Complaint Resolution Service are ongoing in relation to the Domain Name or for a period of ten (10) Days after the Parties are notified of a Decision by an Expert, per Procedure paragraph 16.1.
15.4. Any change in the Registrant Information (as this term is defined in the Registrar Agreement) after the Complaint Officer provides notice to the parties that a Complaint has been started pursuant to Procedure paragraph 3.3, shall have no effect on the Complaint proceeding and shall not change the identity of the Respondent or the party whom all registrars shall treat as the Domain Name registrant, unless such change is a result of a settlement or agreement reached between the Parties whether or not pursuant to Amicable Complaint Resolution. Any such change in Registrant Information shall be reversed as soon as practicable after either party brings the problem to the attention of the Complaint Officer or Ombudsman. No fees will be refunded to any party in the course of reversing any unauthorized change in Registrant Information.
16. Modifications to the Policy and Procedure of the Complaint Resolution Service
16.1. The Internet is an emerging and evolving medium and the regulatory and administrative framework under which it operates is constantly developing. For these reasons CoCCA reserves the right to make modifications to the Policy and Procedure at any time. Except where CoCCA is acting pursuant to a statutory requirement or a court order, substantive changes will be implemented following a process of open public consultation. Each such change will be published in advance (where practicable, 30 calendar days in advance) on the CoCCA web site and will become binding and effective upon the date specified therein.
16.2. In any Complaint Resolution Service proceedings, the Parties will be bound by the Policy and Procedure that are current at the commencement of Complaint Resolution Service proceedings, until the conclusion of the Complaint Resolution Service proceedings.
.com.na Glossary of Technical Terms

.INT
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

A-label
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

ARPA
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Namibian .com.na domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Delegation
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

DNSSEC
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.com.na”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Extension
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

Hostname
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

Http
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

IANA
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction копирайт, 101домен if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Parking
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Pre-Registration
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

Redelegation
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

Registrant
See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .com.na
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry Namibia .com.na
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .com.na Namibia
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

RFCs
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

Root
The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

Subdomain
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".com.na" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Transfer
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

Trustee
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

U-label
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

Unicode
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

UTF-8
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

Variant
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

WHOIS
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

XML
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.