.hk Domain Registration

Hong Kong Domain - .hk Domain Registration

Top Selling Hong Kongese Domains

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No Requirements Necessary

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.hk Registry logo

Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 29.00 USD 39.00 USD
  • 2 Years 78.00 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame

Instant


Requirements

Yes Details Are Individual .hk domain registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .hk?

Yes Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .hk?

Yes Details Are some .hk domain names restricted?

No Details Does .hk domain have a special use?

Yes Details Other information I need to know about .hk?

Yes Details Are there any additional fees for .hk?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .hk?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details


.hk Domain FAQ

.hk General FAQ
Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It is a city-state on the South Coast of China and is one of the most densely populated areas of the world. Hong Kong has an estimated population of approximately 7.1 million people, and the official languages are Cantonese and English.

Hong Kong is one of the world's leading financial centers cpr144449003101 and boasts one of the highest per-capita incomes in the world.

Why should I buy a .hk domain name?
Hong Kong's finance driven economy is one of the largest in the world, and the influx of business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the cpr144449003101 needs of the emerging consumer and commercial markets. The .hk extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image to local customers.
What name can I register?

The most recent source for .hk domain registration policies can be found at: www.hkirc.hk/content.jsp?id=37#!/34

We may refuse to register Domain Names that are:
The following Domain Names may be refused registration:
Domain Names that are:
(a) all single-character labels, including A to Z, 0 to 9 and '-';
(b) generic top-level domains established by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) including, but not limited to, sponsored top-level domains announced by ICANN;
(c) country code top-level domains announced by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA);
(d) common Chinese surnames in the HKSAR (for idv.hk and Second Level Domain Names only)
(e) technical terms;
(f) words controlled by law and order authorities in the HKSAR;
(g) current and likely new types of Domain Names;
(h) terms used for operations
Additionally, in the case of Chinese Domain Names, Domain Names which HKIRC considers to be:
(i) Chinese translations of generic top-level domains announced by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) or sponsored top-level domains announced by ICANN;
(j) names of countries or regions that use Chinese as their language;
(k) common technical terms related to domain names and related international name associations;
(l) types and levels of schools and other educational institutions in the HKSAR;
(m) common Chinese surnames in the HKSAR (for .個人.hk, .個人.香港 and Second Level Domain Names only);
(n) Chinese words controlled by law and order authorities in the HKSAR;
(o) current and likely new types of Chinese Domain Names;
(p) Chinese words of operational needs; or
(q) such other English or Chinese words as reserved by HKIRC.
Reservation of right to use certain Domain Name

HKIRC reserves the right in its sole discretion to use any Domain Name included on the Reserve List for any purpose. HKIRC is not required to inform Registrants or Registrar of the reasons for including a Domain Name on the Reserve List.

Use of cpr144449003101 the word "government"/"政府"

With the exception of Domain Names registered under .gov.hk, .政府.hk, or .政府.香港, any application to register a Domain Name may be rejected where the applied for Domain Name consists of or contains a reference to the word "government" or "政府" or related words where such use is likely, in the Registrar’s or HKIRC's own opinion, to connote that a Registrant has authorisation from the HKSAR Government.

Use of the word "bank"/"銀行"

If a Registrant applies to register a Domain Name that uses the word "bank” or "銀行" or any of their derivatives in English or Chinese or any translation of them, or uses the letters "b", "a", "n", "k" or the characters "銀" "行" in that order in the Domain Name, the Registrant must include in their application for such a Domain Name a true copy of the specific consent granted by the Monetary Authority (MA) under section 97 of the Banking Ordinance for the use of banking names or descriptions. This requirement does not apply if the Registrant is not restricted from using banking names and descriptions by the relevant provisions of section 97 of the Banking Ordinance (e.g., as a bank authorized under the Banking Ordinance) or by the general consent given by the MA under section 97 of the Banking Ordinance.

Registration of a Domain Name may be refused or cancelled if the Registrant fails to comply with this clause 7.5, or if, in the Registrar’s or HKIRC's opinion, the Domain Name registration may lead to the Registrant's contravention of section 97 of the Banking Ordinance.

Use of the word "insurance", "assurance" or "保險"

If the Registrant applies to register a Domain Name that contains the words “insurance”, "assurance" or "保險" or which otherwise fall within any of the restrictions under section 56(A) of the Insurance Companies Ordinance (Cap 41), the Registrant must provide with the application the written consent issued by the Insurance Authority with respect to the Registrant’s use of such Domain Name.

The Registrar or HKIRC may refuse to register or may cancel the registration of a Domain Name if the Registrant does not comply with this Rule 7.6, or the Domain Name registration may lead, in the Registrar’s or HKIRC's opinion, to a contravention of section 56(A) of the Insurance Companies Ordinance (Cap 41).

Controlled Words

A Registrant must not apply for a Domain Name which comprises of or incorporates a word the use of which is subject to prohibition or restriction under applicable legislation of the HKSAR (“Controlled Word”) unless the Registrant is satisfied that its use of the Domain Name will not contravene the provisions of such legislation. Neither HKIRC nor the Registrar assumes any responsibility for vetting Domain Name applications to ensure that the Domain Names do not comprise of or incorporate a Controlled Word.

The Registrar or HKIRC may refuse to register or may cancel the registration of a Domain Name if the Registrant fails to comply with this clause 7.7, or if, in the Registrar’s or HKIRC's opinion, the Domain Name registration may lead to the Registrant's contravention of any applicable legislation of the HKSAR.

Other situations giving rise to refusal of a Domain Name

The Registrar and/or HKIRC are entitled to refuse any application to register a Domain Name due to other technical and operational considerations, or if the registration of such Domain Name would cause confusion to the public, be contrary to the national security or interests of the HKSAR, or otherwise be contrary to any law of the HKSAR. Both the Registrant and the Registrar acknowledge that HKIRC retains the right to conduct final checks on all Domain Name registrations or applications, and reserves the right to refuse the registration or continuation thereof for a Domain Name if HKIRC in its sole discretion deems fit.

Refusal to register a Domain Name

HKIRC may, without limitation as set out in these Registration Policies and in its sole discretion, refuse to register any Domain Name selected by the Registrant. HKIRC is not obliged to provide the Registrar or the Registrant with any reasons or grounds for such refusal but on the Registrant's reasonable request and in its absolute discretion, HKIRC may inform the Registrant of such reasons or grounds.

We reserve the right to use any Domain Name included on the Reserve List for any purposes.

Representations and warranties
By making an application for a Domain Name, the Registrant represents and warrants that:
(a) to the best of its knowledge and belief, the Domain Name that the Registrant is applying for will not infringe or otherwise violate the legal rights of any third party;
(b) the Registrant intends to use the Domain Name;
(c) the Registrant’s use of the Domain Name shall be bona fide for the Registrant’s own benefit and shall be for lawful purposes;
(d) the Registrant will not knowingly use the Domain Name in violation of any applicable laws and regulations;
(e) all information the Registrant provides to the Registrar, including further additions or alterations to such information, is true, complete and accurate;
(f) in the event that the Registrant receives notification of any claim, action or demand arising out of or related to the registration or use of the Domain Name, the Registrant will immediately send the Registrar a written notice notifying the Registrar of such claim, action or demand; and
(g) that it meets, and continues to meet, the eligibility criteria prescribed by HKIRC.
The Registrant acknowledges that the Registrar and HKIRC rely on all representations made and warranties given by the Registrant in determining if the application for a Domain Name should be approved.
What is the registration term allowed for .hk domain names?
The minimum term for .hk cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .hk domain name?

YesAre Individual .hk domain registrations allowed?

YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .hk?

YesAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .hk?

Organization number for businesses, or ID number for individuals is required. Additional documentation may be requested by the registry for verification purposes.

YesAre some .hk domain names restricted?

Violating rights to third parties, regional and internet names, and names contrary to the laws of Hong Kong are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.

NoDoes .hk domain have a special use?

YesOther information I need to know about .hk?

Use of the word "government", "bank", "assurance", "insurance" or derivatives of these names require additional justification documents.
Domain registration entitles you to register same name in Chinese language under .香港 for free.
cpr144449003101

YesAre there any additional fees for .hk?

Ownership Update: $99

NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .hk?

NoWHOIS Privacy service available?

Yes.hk Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

Don't Have All of These Requirements for Hong Kong .hk? Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.

Available at Checkout

.hk Trustee / Proxy Fee: per
.hk Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee:

How long does it take to register my .hk domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .hk during general availability is Instant. .hk is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .hk domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 2 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.hk); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.hk).
Trustee Service for .hk

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.

cpr144449003101

Trustee service is not available for this extension

How do I host my .hk domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .hk. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
How do I transfer my .hk domain name?

To transfer your .hk domain name to bluesit.com, submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .hk domain cpr144449003101 name out of bluesit.com, contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .hk requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .hk domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .hk domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?

Yes, You can register IDNs in the following languages

Grace period for .hk domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .hk domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .hk domain names?
You may visit them here: Hong Kong Domain Name Registration Company Limited (HKDNR).cpr144449003101
.hk Domains Dispute & Policy

The most recent source for .hk domains dispute policy can be found at: www.hkirc.hk/content.jsp?id=25

Rules of Proceedure for Domain Name Dispute Resolution can be found at: www.hkirc.hk/content.jsp?id=37#!/36

Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy
for .hk and . 香港 domain names

[Effective 22 Feb 2011]

1. Purpose
This Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (the “DNDRP”) is incorporated by reference into the agreement between the Registrant and the Registrar (the "Registration Agreement") as part of the mandatory terms required by the Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Limited ("HKIRC") in relation to the registration and use of a domain name in the .hk and .香港country code top level domains (a “Domain Name”). This DNDRP sets forth the terms and conditions in connection with a dispute between the Registrant and any party other than HKIRC and the Registrar in regard to the registration and use of a Domain Name.

Proceedings under Paragraph 4 of this DNDRP will be conducted according to the HKIRC Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy Rules of Procedure (the “Rules of Procedure”), and the selected Arbitration Dispute Resolution Service Provider’s Supplemental Rules (the "Supplemental Rules”).

2. Registrant’s Representations
By applying to register a Domain Name, or by asking the Registrar to maintain or renew a Domain Name registration, the Registrant represents and warrants to the Registrar and HKIRC that:
(a) the statements that the Registrant made in the Registration Agreement or provided to the Registrar in the course of processing the Domain Name application are complete and accurate;
(b) to the best of the Registrant’s knowledge and belief, the Domain Name the Registrant is applying for will not infringe or otherwise violate the legal rights of any third party;
(c) the Registrant intends to use the Domain Name;
(d) the Registrant’s use of the Domain Name shall be bona fide for the Registrant’s own benefit and shall be for lawful purposes;
(e) the Registrant will not knowingly use the Domain Name in violation of any applicable laws and regulations;
(f) all information the Registrant, or any agent of the Registrant provides to the Registrar and HKIRC, including further additions or alterations to such information, is complete and accurate; and
(g) in the event that the Registrant receives notification of any claim, action or demand arising out of or related to the registration or use of the Domain Name, the Registrant will immediately send the Registrar a written notice notifying the Registrar of such claim, action or demand, and the Registrar shall notify HKIRC.
It is the Registrant’s responsibility to determine whether the Registrant’s Domain Name registration infringes or violates someone else’s rights.
3. Cancellations, Transfers and Changes
The Registrar or HKIRC may cancel, transfer or otherwise make changes to Domain Name registrations in the following circumstances:
(a) the receipt of written or electronic instructions to the Registrar or HKIRC from both the Registrant and the other party to the dispute that the dispute has been settled; or
(b) the receipt by the Registrar or HKIRC of an order issued by an HKSAR court requiring any such action; or
(c) the receipt of a decision of an Arbitration Panel as defined in the Rules of Procedure, requiring any such action in respect of the relevant Domain Name registration.
Notwithstanding anything in these DNDRP, the Registrar or HKIRC may also cancel, transfer or otherwise make changes to a Domain Name registration in accordance with the terms of the Registration Agreement or any legal requirements,
4. Mandatory Arbitration Proceedings
This Paragraph sets forth the type of disputes for which the Registrant is required to submit to a mandatory arbitration proceeding. These proceedings will be conducted before one of the Dispute Resolution Service Providers approved by HKIRC (each, a “Provider”).
(a) Applicable Disputes. The Registrant is required to submit to a mandatory arbitration proceeding in the event that a third party (a “Complainant”) asserts to the applicable Provider, in compliance with the Rules of Procedure and the Supplemental Rules of such Provider, that:
(i) the Registrant’s Domain Name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in Hong Kong in which the Complainant has rights; and
(ii) the Registrant has no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the Domain Name; and
(iii) the Registrant’s Domain Name has been registered and is being used in bad faith, and
(iv) if the Domain Name is registered by an individual person, the Registrant does not meet the registration requirements for that individual category of Domain Name.
To succeed in the arbitration proceeding, the Complainant must prove that all of the above elements are present. For the purpose of requirement (i) in relation to Chinese Domain Names, the traditional or simplified form or any other variant set out in the Chinese Characters Variant Table (defined in the Registration Agreement) of a Chinese character appearing in a Domain Name or trade mark will be considered to be identical and confusingly similar to that Chinese character.
(b) Evidence of Registration and Use in Bad Faith. For the purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(iii), the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by an Arbitration Panel to be present, shall be evidence of the registration and use of a Domain Name in bad faith:
(i) circumstances indicating that the Registrant has registered or has acquired the Domain Name primarily for the purpose of selling, renting, or otherwise transferring the Domain Name registration to the Complainant who is the owner of the trademark or service mark, or to a competitor of that Complainant, for valuable consideration in excess of the Registrant’s documented out-of-pocket costs directly related to the Domain Name; or
(ii) the Registrant has registered the Domain Name in order to prevent the owner of the trademark or service mark from reflecting the mark in a corresponding Domain Name, provided that the Registrant has engaged in a pattern of such conduct; or
(iii) the Registrant has registered the Domain Name primarily for the purpose of disrupting the business of a competitor; or
(iv) by using the Domain Name, the Registrant has intentionally attempted to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users to the Registrant’s web site or other on-line location, by creating a likelihood of confusion with the Complainant’s mark as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of the Registrant’s web site or location or of a product or service on the Registrant’s web site or location.
(c) Evidence of Registration in violation of the eligibility requirements for.idv.hk/.個人.hk / .個人.香港 Domain Names ('Individual Domain Name Categories") For the purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(iv), the Registrant shall have violated the eligibility requirements for any Domain Name registered in the Individual cpr144449003101 Domain Name categories. These include the name incorporated in the Domain Name is not the Registrant’s legal name for個人.hk and個人.香港 domain names as set out in the Registration Agreement and the Registration Policies, Procedures and Guidelines and the Published Policies.
(d) How to Demonstrate the Registrant’s Rights to and Legitimate Interests in the Domain Name in Responding to a Complaint.

When the Registrant receives a Complaint as defined in Paragraph 3 of the Rules of Procedure, the Registrant should refer to Paragraph 5 of the Rules of Procedure in determining how the Registrant’s Response should be prepared.

Any of the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by an Arbitration Panel to be proven based on its evaluation of all evidence presented to it, shall demonstrate the Registrant’s rights or legitimate interests to the Domain Name for purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(ii):

(i) before any notice to the Registrant of the dispute, the Registrant’s use of, or demonstrable preparations to use, the Domain Name or a name corresponding to the Domain Name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services in Hong Kong; or
(ii) the Registrant (as an individual, business, or other organisation) has been commonly known by the Domain Name, even if the Registrant has acquired no trade mark or service mark rights in Hong Kong; or
(iii) the Registrant has trademark or service mark rights that the mark is identical to the Domain Name the Registrant is holding; or
(iv) the Registrant is making a legitimate non-commercial or fair use of the Domain Name, without intent for commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers or to tarnish the trade mark or service mark at issue; or
(v) If the Domain Name is registered in one of the Individual Domain Name Categories, the Domain Name registered must be the Registrant’s own “individual name”, which can be either (1) the Registrant’s legal name, or (2) a name by which the Registrant is commonly known and can include, for example, a pseudonym the Registrant uses if the Registrant is an author or a painter, or a stage name if the Registrant is a singer or actor, or the name of a fictional character if the Registrant has created or can otherwise show it has rights in such fictional character.
(e) Selection of Provider. The Complainant shall select the Provider from among those approved by the HKIRC by submitting the Complaint to that Provider. The selected Provider will administer the arbitration proceedings.
(f) Initiation of arbitration proceeding and process and appointment of Arbitration Panel. The Rules of Procedure and the Provider’s Supplemental Rules set out the process for initiating and conducting an arbitration proceeding and for appointing the Arbitration Panel which will decide the dispute.
(g) Fees. All fees charged by a Provider in connection with any dispute before an Arbitration Panel pursuant to this DNDRP shall be paid by the Complainant, except in cases where the Registrant elects to expand the Arbitration Panel from one to three Panelists as provided in Paragraph 5(b)(iv) of the Rules of Procedure or in the Supplemental Rules, in which case all fees will be split evenly by the Registrant and the Complainant.

Attention is also drawn to Paragraph 18(d) of the Rules of Procedure which provides for the possible charge for extra fees in the exceptional circumstances, for example, if an in-person hearing is held.

(h) HKIRC's Involvement in Arbitration Proceedings. The Registrar and HKIRC do not, and will not, participate in the administration or conduct of any proceeding before an Arbitration Panel. In addition, the Registrar and HKIRC will not be liable as a result of any decision rendered by an Arbitration Panel.
(i) Remedies. The remedies available to a Complainant pursuant to any proceeding before an Arbitration Panel shall be limited to requiring the cancellation of the Registrant’s Domain Name or the transfer of the Registrant’s Domain Name registration to the Complainant. The Registrar shall execute the result. Where the Registrar does not execute the result without giving an acceptable reason, HKIRC shall execute the result of the dispute.
(j) Notification and Publication. The Provider shall notify the Registrar and HKIRC of any decision made by an Arbitration Panel with respect to a Domain Name. All decisions under this DNDRP and the Rules of Procedure and the Provider’s Supplemental Rules will be final and binding, and shall be published in full on the Internet or via other forms of publication, except when an Arbitration Panel determines, in an exceptional case, to redact portions of its decision.

By applying to register a Domain Name and by asking either HKIRC or the Registrar to register, maintain or renew a Domain Name registration, the Registrant agrees that a decision by an Arbitration Panel in which the Registrant is a Respondent may be made public and may be posted on the website of the Registrar and/or HKIRC and/or the Provider which appointed the Arbitration Panel in question.

(k) Results of an Arbitration Panel’s Decision. If an Arbitration Panel decides that the Registrant’s Domain Name registration should be cancelled or transferred, the Registrar will wait ten (10) business days after the Registrar and HKIRC are informed by the applicable Provider of the Arbitration Panel’s decision before implementing that decision. Where the Registrar does not execute the decision without giving a reason acceptable to HKIRC in its reasonable discretion, HKIRC shall execute the decision of the dispute.
(l) Domain Names in Pair. Where a Domain Name is held in pair in accordance with Clause 5.2 of the Registration Policies, Procedures and Guidelines or pursuant to the Registration Agreement, both or all Domain Names held in the pair shall be subject to the decision of the Arbitration Panel, and shall be cancelled and transferred together as a result of such decision.
5. The Involvement of HKIRC and/or the Registrar in Disputes
The Registrar and HKIRC will not participate in any way in any dispute between the Registrant and any party other than the Registrar and HKIRC regarding the registration and use of the Registrant’s Domain Name. The Registrant shall not name the Registrar and/or HKIRC as a party or otherwise include the Registrar and/or HKIRC in any such proceeding. In the event that the Registrar or HKIRC is named as a party in any such proceeding, the Registrar and HKIRC reserve their right to raise any and all defences deemed appropriate by them, and to take any other action necessary to defend themselves.
6. Maintaining the Status Quo
Neither the Registrar nor HKIRC will cancel, transfer, activate, deactivate, or otherwise change the status of any Domain Name registration under this DNDRP except as provided in Paragraphs 3 above.
7. Transfers During a Dispute to a new registrant or Change of the Registrars
The Registrant shall not transfer its Domain Name registration to another holder (i) during a pending arbitration proceeding brought pursuant to Paragraph 4 or for a period of ten (10) business days after such proceeding is concluded; or (ii) during a pending arbitration proceeding, commenced regarding the Registrant’s Domain Name unless the party to whom the Domain Name registration is being transferred agrees, in writing, to be bound by the decision of the Arbitration Panel. The Registrar and HKIRC reserve the right to cancel any transfer of a Domain Name registration to another holder that is made in violation of this paragraph.

The Registrant shall not transfer the Registrant’s Domain Name registration to another registrar during a pending arbitration proceeding brought pursuant to Paragraph 4 and for a period of ten (10) business days after such proceeding is concluded. The Registrant may transfer administration of the relevant Domain Name registration to another registrar during a pending arbitration, provided that the original Registrar shall continue to be subject to the proceedings commenced against the Registrant in accordance with this DNDRP and the Rules of Procedure. In the event that the Registrant transfers a Domain Name registration to another registrar during a pending arbitration, such dispute shall remain subject to the Registration Agreement of the Registrar from which the Domain Name registration was transferred, and the new registrar agrees to execute the decision rendered by the Arbitration Panel in respect of the relevant Domain Name registration.

8. Policy Modifications
This DNDRP and the Rules of Procedure may be modified by HKIRC at any time. Each time HKIRC amends this DNDRP and its Rules of Procedure, HKIRC will publish the amended version of the DNDRP and/or the Rules of Procedure in advance (where practicable, fourteen (14) calendar days in advance) on the website of HKIRC www.hkirc.hk. Each amended version of the DNDRP and/or the Rules of Procedure will become binding and effective on the Registrant, the Registrar and HKIRC on the effective date specified at the top of the amended version, and will replace all previous versions of the DNDRP and/or the Rules of Procedure. The Registrant should review the websites of the Registrar and/or HKIRC regularly in order to be aware of all such amendments.

If this DNDRP and/or its Rules of Procedure are invoked in the submission of a Complaint to a Provider, the version of the DNDRP and/or Rules of Procedure in effect at the time it was invoked will apply to that submission until the arbitration proceeding is over.

In the event that the Registrant objects to a change in this DNDRP and/or the Rules of Procedure, the Registrant’s sole remedy is to cancel the Registrant’s Domain Name registration with the Registrar, provided that the Registrant will not be entitled to a refund of any fees the Registrant has paid to the Registrar. The DNDRP and the Rules of Procedure, as modified, will apply to the Registrant until the Registrant cancels the relevant Domain Name registration.

9. Miscellaneous

In this DNDRP:

(a) Words importing the singular number only shall include the plural and vice versa.
(b) Words importing the masculine gender shall include the feminine gender and vice versa.
.hk Glossary of Technical Terms

.INT
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

A-label
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

ARPA
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Hong Kongese .hk domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Delegation
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

DNSSEC
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.hk”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Extension
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

Hostname
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

Http
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

IANA
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Parking
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Pre-Registration
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

Redelegation
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

Registrant
See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .hk
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry Hong Kong .hk
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .hk Hong Kong
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

RFCs
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

Root
The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

Subdomain
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".hk" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Transfer
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

Trustee
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

U-label
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

Unicode
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

UTF-8
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

Variant
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

WHOIS
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

XML
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.