.nl Domain Registration

Netherlands Domain - .nl Domain Registration

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No Requirements Necessary

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.nl Registry logo

Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 14.95 USD
  • 2 Years 29.30 USD
  • 5 Years 71.01 USD
  • 10 Years 134.55 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame

Instant


Requirements

Yes Details Are Individual .nl domain registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .nl?

No Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .nl?

Yes Details Are some .nl domain names restricted?

No Details Does .nl domain have a special use?

No Details Other information I need to know about .nl?

No Details Are there any additional fees for .nl?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .nl?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details


.nl Domain FAQ

.nl General FAQ
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located mainly in Northwest Europe. It is often referred to as Holland. The estimated population is approximately 17 million people, and the official language is Dutch.

The Dutch economy is highly developed and has been contributing to the European economy for centuries. It is based cpr144449003101 largely on exportation, particularly of foodstuffs, and it receives significant contribution from the chemical, metallurgic, manufacturing and tourism sectors.

Why should I buy a .nl domain name?
The Netherlands has awell-developed and strongeconomy, and the influx of new business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the needs of the emerging consumer and cpr144449003101 commercial markets. The .nl extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image and show your commitment to the region to local customers.
What name can I register?

The registrant of a .nl domain name is responsible for ensuring that neither the name nor its use is inconsistent with public order or decency, and that neither the registration nor the use of the .nl domain name infringes another party’s rights, or is unlawful or illegal in any other way. Lest the registrant should fail in this responsibility, the registrant indemnifies SIDN against any resulting third-party claim and undertakes to fully compensate SIDN for any resulting costs it may incur or damages it may suffer.

Also, the domain name you choose must not be inconsistent with public order or decency.

Where technical grounds exist, SIDN may decide not to allow the registration of one or more .nl cpr144449003101 domain names. If an application is received to register any such name, it will be rejected.

The technical requirements that must be met are published at www.sidn.nl. SIDN may also temporarily exclude a .nl domain name from registration, if the Complaints and Appeals Board has ruled that the name in question is inconsistent with public order or decency.

What is the registration term allowed for .nl domain names?
The minimum term for .nl cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .nl domain name?

YesAre Individual .nl domain registrations allowed?

YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .nl?

NoAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .nl?

YesAre some .nl domain names restricted?

Violating rights of third parties, unlawful and illegal activities and names are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.

NoDoes .nl domain have a special use?

NoOther information I need to know about .nl?

NoAre there any cpr144449003101 additional fees for .nl?

NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .nl?

NoWHOIS Privacy service available?

Yes.nl Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

Don't Have All of These Requirements for Netherlands .nl? Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.

Available at Checkout

.nl Trustee / Proxy Fee: per
.nl Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee:

How long does it take to register my .nl domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .nl during general availability is Instant. .nl is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .nl domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 2 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.nl); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.nl).
Trustee Service for .nl

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.

cpr144449003101

Trustee service is not available for this extension

How do I host my .nl domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .nl. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
How do I transfer my .nl domain name?

To transfer your .nl domain name to bluesit.com, submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .nl domain cpr144449003101 name out of bluesit.com, contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .nl requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .nl domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .nl domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?

No, .nl does not cpr144449003101 support Internationalized Domain Names

Grace period for .nl domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .nl domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .nl domain names?
You may visit them here: SIDN.cpr144449003101
.nl Domains Dispute & Policy

Version March 4, 2010

Dispute Resolution Regulations for .nl Domain Names

A. Introduction

These Dispute Resolution Regulations for .nl Domain Names came into effect on February 28, 2008 and were most recently amended on March 4, 2010. From that first date, any registrant of a .nl domain name involved in a dispute concerning the registration of that name will be subject to these regulations if a third party files a complaint against them pursuant to these regulations. By submitting a complaint against a registrant, third parties submit themselves to these regulations and are bound by the same.

B. Definitions

In the context of these regulations, the following definitions apply:
(a) Pool: the list of potential panelists published by the center;
(b) Registrar: an organization which is entitled, by virtue of the registrarship contract entered into with SIDN, to register domain names on behalf of domain name applicants;
(c) Domain name: a domain name registered with SIDN under the country-code top level domain .nl;
(d) Registrant: the party in whose name a domain name has been entered in the SIDN register;
(e) Complaint: the remedies set out in the initial submission and the grounds in support of the same;
(f) Complainant: the person or organization which submits a complaint against a registrant to the center;
(g) Center: the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Arbitration and Mediation Center, accredited by SIDN for the administration of .nl domain name disputes;
(h) Regulations: the Dispute resolution regulations for .nl domain names;
(i) Panelist: the panelist appointed by the center to determine the merits of the dispute;
(j) SIDN: the Foundation for Internet Domain Name Registration in the Netherlands (‘Stichting Internet Domeinregistratie Nederland');
(k) Respondent: the registrant against whom a complaint is submitted in accordance with these regulations;
(l) Response: the submission with which the respondent defends itself against the complaint;
(m) Change of registrant: the termination of the registration contract between SIDN and a registrant in relation to a particular domain name and the subsequent conclusion of a registration contract between SIDN and a new registrant in relation to the same domain name.

C. Who may seek what remedy and on what grounds?

Article 1. What remedy may be requested under the regulations?
1. Under the regulations, a complainant may seek only the following remedy: A change of registrant, whereby the complainant becomes the registrant instead of the respondent.
Article 2. On what grounds may a complaint be submitted?
2.1. Complaints may be submitted by any party which asserts and establishes that:
a. a domain name is identical or confusingly similar to:
I. a trademark, or trade name, protected under Dutch law in which the complainant has rights; or
II. a personal name registered in the General Municipal Register (‘gemeentelijkebasisadministratie') of a municipality in the Netherlands, or the name of a Dutch public legal entity or the name of an association or foundation registered in the Netherlands under which the complainant undertakes public activities on a permanent basis; and
b. the registrant has no rights to or legitimate interests in the domain name; and
c. the domain name has been registered or is being used in bad faith.
2.2. The mediation process described in article 8 is not applicable, and the panelist shall not be competent or shall declare not to be competent, if the complainant's claims are not based upon the grounds referred to in article 2.1.
Article 3. Examples of possible evidence to be submitted by parties
3.1. The complainant must demonstrate that the registrant has no rights to or legitimate interests in the domain name. The registrant may demonstrate such rights or legitimate interests on its part inter alia through the following circumstances:
a. a. before having any notice of the dispute, the registrant made demonstrable preparations to use the domain name (or a name corresponding to the domain name) in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services;
b. the registrant as an individual, business or other organization is commonly known by the domain name;
c. the registrant is making a legitimate noncommercial use of the domain name, without intent for commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers or to tarnish or otherwise damage the relevant trademark, trade name, personal name, name of a Dutch public legal entity or name of an association or foundation located in the Netherlands.
3.2. Evidence that a domain name has been registered or is being used in bad faith may be provided inter alia through the following circumstances:
a. the domain name has been registered or acquired primarily for the purpose of selling, renting or transferring it to the complainant or to the complainant's competitors for valuable consideration in excess of the cost of registration;
b. the domain name has been registered in order to prevent the complainant from using it;
c. the domain name has been registered primarily for the purpose of disrupting the complainant's activities;
d. the domain name has been or is being used for commercial gain, by attracting internet users to a website of the registrant or other online location through the likelihood of confusion which may arise with the trademark, trade name, personal name, name of a Dutch public legal entity or name of an association or foundation registered in the Netherlands as to, for example, the source, sponsorship, affiliation or endorsement of the website of the registrant or other online location(s) or of products or services on the domain registrant's website or another online location.

D. The procedure

Article 4. How to initiate proceedings
4.1. The complainant may initiate proceedings at the center by:
a. drafting a complaint in accordance with the regulations and with the complaint form of annex 1, which is deemed to be an integral part of the regulations; and
b. submitting the complaint including attachments electronically to the center's e-mail address in accordance with the practical guidelines published on the center's website.
4.2. The center shall confirm to the complainant the receipt of the complaint including the date of receipt.
4.3. Concerning payment by the complainant of the costs of proceedings, reference is made to article 23, as well as article 7.4 and 8.4, as the case may be.
Article 5. Notification of the complaint
5.1. Within three (3) calendar days of receiving the complaint, the center shall determine whether the complaint meets the requirements set out in article 4. If the complaint is found to do so, the center shall forward the complaint together with a notification document to the respondent in accordance with article 16.4. SIDN, the concerned registrar and the complainant shall be copied on this message. The proceedings commence on the date mentioned in the notification document.
5.2. If the center finds the complaint not to have been drafted and submitted in accordance with the requirements of article 4, it shall promptly notify the complainant of such deficiency. The complainant shall have five (5) calendar days to correct such deficiency and to resubmit the complaint to the center. If the complainant fails to do so, the procedure shall not continue, without prejudice to the right to submit a new complaint.
Article 6. Locking of the domain name
6. From the moment it is informed by the center of the receipt of the complaint, SIDN shall not cooperate with any cancellation, change of registrant or endorsement of a pledge of the domain name concerned until the proceedings have come to an end and any resulting change of registrant has been implemented.
Article 7. The response
7.1. The center must receive the response no later than twenty (20) calendar days after the date of commencement of the proceedings.
7.2. The response shall be complete only when:
a. drafted in accordance with the regulations and in accordance with the response form of annex 2, which is deemed to be an integral part of the regulations; and
b. submitted together with the attachments thereto electronically to the center's e-mail address in accordance with the practical guidelines published on the center's website, and the complainant is copied on such message.
7.3. The center shall confirm receipt of the response to the parties, stating the date of receipt, or shall notify the parties that the period referred to in article 7.1 has expired without a response being received.
7.4. If the respondent fails to submit a response to the center within the specified period, the procedure described in articles 9 to 14 shall nevertheless be followed. The complainant shall pay to the center, within ten (10) calendar days of the confirmation referred to in article 7.3, the administration charges and panelist's fee referred to in article 23. If the complainant fails to do so, the procedure shall be terminated, without prejudice to the right to submit a new complaint.
Article 8. Mediation
8.1. The free-of-charge mediation process commences within five (5) calendar days of the center forwarding the response to SIDN.
8.2. The mediation process ends within thirty (30) calendar days of its commencement, or as much earlier as SIDN determines that mediation shall not be successful. This period may, with the consent of both parties, be extended twice for periods of up to thirty (30) calendar days.
8.3. If SIDN determines the mediation to be successful, SIDN shall inform the center accordingly by e-mail, copied to the complainant and the respondent, whereafter the center shall terminate the procedure.
8.4. If SIDN determines the mediation to have not been succesful, SIDN shall inform the center accordingly by e-mail, copied to the complainant and the respondent. The complainant shall pay to the center, within ten (10) calendar days of this communication, the administration charges and panelist's fee referred to in article 23. If the complainant fails to do so, the procedure shall be terminated, without prejudice to the right to submit a new complaint.
Article 9. Panelist appointment
9.1. Within five (5) calendar days of the receipt of the complainant's payment pursuant to article 7.4 or 8.4 of the fee referred to in article 23, the center shall appoint a panelist from the pool.
9.2. The panelist shall confirm the appointment and declare not to have a personal or business connection with any of the parties.
9.3. Once the panelist has been appointed, the center shall inform the parties thereof.
9.4. The center may relieve panelists of their appointment and replace them; when doing so, the center shall state the reason. Replacement of a panelist shall take place in accordance with the rules of appointment set out in the present article.
Article 10. Panelist's task and powers
10.1. The panelist shall be impartial and independent. A panelist shall request to be excused from a case if and as soon as:
a. he has a personal or business connection with one of the parties; or
b. prior to his appointment, he has, directly or indirectly, expressed his opinion on the case to either party.
10.2. The panelist shall act in accordance with the cpr144449003101 regulations and shall decide on his own competence.
10.3. The panelist shall determine the admissibility, relevance and weight of the evidence submitted. If no response has been submitted, the panelist shall rule on the basis of the complaint. The complaint shall in that event be granted, unless the panelist considers it to be without basis in law or in fact.
10.4. The panelist shall ensure that the proceedings take place with due expedition. The panelist may extend the periods provided for in the regulations, upon party request or by himself.
Article 11. Further submissions
11.1. The panelist may invite the parties to submit further statements and/or (further) submissions.
11.2. Should a party file a further submission without being so invited, the panelist shall determine the admissibility of such submission.
11.3. The panelist shall not accept documents which have not been submitted in the prescribed manner through the center.
11.4. The panelist shall not accept documents which have been made available to the mediator by the parties during the mediation process, except insofar as any such document is submitted in accordance with articles 11.1 and 11.2 and he chooses to accepts it.
Article 12. Conclusion of written phase of procedure
12.1. The written phase of the procedure shall be concluded after the appointment of the panelist, provided that any requested or admitted submissions made thereafter shall be deemed to be part of the record.
12.2. The center shall forward the case file to the panelist.
Article 13. Hearing
13. In principle, there shall be no in-person hearing during the proceedings, subject to exception if the panelist considers it necessary for deciding the dispute.
Article 14. Decision
14.1. The panelist shall decide on the requested remedy in accordance with the regulations. The panelist shall render his decision in writing.
14.2. Except exceptional circumstances, the panelist shall forward the decision to the center within fourteen (14) calendar days of conclusion of the written phase of the procedure.
14.3. The panelist's decision shall state:
a. the grounds for the decision;
b. the name of the panelist;
c. the names and places of residence/registration of the parties;
d. the date of the decision
14.4. Within three (3) calendar days of receiving the decision from the panelist, the center shall forward a copy of the decision together with a notification document to the parties and SIDN.

E. General provisions concerning the procedure

Article 15. Contact
15. Neither a party nor any person acting on behalf of a party shall have any direct contact with the panelist, other than as specified in the regulations. All communications between a party and the panelist shall take place through the center.
Article 16. Communication: the method of submitting documents
16.1. All communications under the regulations shall be sent exclusively by e-mail. Should this not be possible, communications may be sent by registered mail (return receipt requested), by courier, by fax or by any other means of communication providing a probative record of transmission.
16.2. Any communication to the center shall be sent by e-mail to domain.disputes@wipo.int; In the exceptional event, as mentioned in article 16.1, that communication by e-mail is impossible, communications shall be sent to the center as follows:
a. in hard copy to the address of the center: WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Center, 34 Chemin des Colombettes, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland;
b. by fax to: +41 22 740 3700.
16.3. Except for the complaint, parties shall send any submission, including the response and any other submissions both to the center and to the other party.
16.4. In forwarding the complaint to the respondent, the center shall employ reasonably available means to achieve actual notice to the respondent. To that end the Center shall send:
a. the complaint with attachments and a notification document to all e-mail addresses indicated in the publicly available WhoIs information of SIDN and to all other e-mail addresses of the respondent indicated by the complainant, or to the e-mail address at which the respondent has indicated to prefer receiving communications from the center; and
b. with reference to the communication of article 16.4 sub a, a notification document to all postal addresses and fax numbers indicated in the publicly available WhoIs information of SIDN and to all other postal addresses and fax numbers of the respondent indicated by the complainant, or to the postal address or fax number at which the respondent has indicated to prefer receiving communications from the center.
16.5. Any communication shall be deemed to have been made:
a. by e-mail, at the time of transmission of the communication, provided that such time is verifiable;
b. by fax, at the time confirmed by the transmission report;
c. by postal or courier service, at the time confirmed by the return receipt.
Article 17. Language of the proceedings
17.1. Proceedings shall be conducted in the Dutch language whenever both the complainant and the respondent are residing or registered in the Netherlands. In exceptional circumstances however, the center (subject to the panelist's determination) or the panelist may decide that proceedings are to be conducted in English, or that the complainant or the respondent may make submissions in English.
17.2. Whenever the complainant or the respondent neither resides nor is registered in the Netherlands, proceedings shall be conducted in the English language. In exceptional circumstances however, (such as when both parties appear to have full command of the Dutch language), the center (subject to the panelist's determination) or panelist may decide that proceedings are to be conducted in Dutch, or that the complainant or the respondent may make submissions in Dutch.
17.3. The center or the panelist may require that any document submitted in a language other than the language of proceedings is accompanied by a partial or complete translation into the language of proceedings.
Article 18. Non-compliance with the regulations
18. In the event of a party's non-compliance in part or in full with the regulations, the panelist shall draw such inferences as he considers appropriate.
Article 19. Settlement or other basis for termination of dispute
19.1. The center or the panelist, as the case may be, shall terminate the proceedings in the following three instances:
a. if the parties reach a settlement before the panelist renders a decision;
b. if it becomes unnecessary or impossible to continue the proceedings;
c. if the complainant withdraws the complaint during the proceedings.
19.2. The center shall inform the parties and SIDN of the termination of the proceedings, whereupon SIDN shall arrange for termination of the lock that has been placed upon the domain name pursuant to article 6.
19.3. The center or, if appointed, the panelist may upon the complainant's written request suspend the proceedings for a limited period of time in order to give parties the opportunity to agree and implement a settlement.
19.4. In all of the above cases, no fees already paid shall be refunded to the parties, except for the amount reserved as the panelist's fee in case no panelist has yet been appointed.

F. Consequences of the decision

Article 20. Implementation of decision by SIDN
20.1. If a panelist orders a change of registrant, so that the complainant shall become the registrant, SIDN shall implement such decision ten (10) calendar days after being notified of it by the center, unless SIDN has within that period received proof from the respondent (e.g. a copy of a writ of summons) that the respondent has instituted legal proceedings at a Dutch court against the complainant in relation to the registration of the domain name at issue.
In such event also, SIDN shall not cooperate with any cancellation, change of registrant or endorsement of a pledge of the domain name, until SIDN has received sufficient proof that the dispute has been resolved between the parties, that the court proceedings have been terminated or withdrawn, or that the court has denied the respondent's claim or determined that the respondent has no right to the domain name.
20.2. In order to facilitate the implementation of the panelist's decision referred to in article 20.1, the complainant must submit through its registrar a request to SIDN for a change of registrant in accordance with SIDN's General Terms and Conditions. The service agreement between SIDN and the respondent, on which the respondent's use of the domain name is based, shall terminate through the change of registrant.
Article 21. Concurrent court proceedings
21. Participation in proceedings covered by these regulations (including the mediation process) does not prevent either the respondent or the complainant from submitting the dispute to an independent court of competent jurisdiction.
Article 22. Publication of decision
22. Unless the panelist determines otherwise, the decision shall be published in full by the center and/or SIDN.

G. Costs

Article 23. Costs
23.1. In case article 7.4 or article 8.4 applies, the complainant is required to pay a fixed fee to the center. Such fee shall consist of the administration charges and the panelist's fee, as specified in the table in annex 3. The center shall be under no obligation to further consider a case until it has received such payment.
23.2. If the center does not receive full payment of the fixed fee in the circumstances referred to in article 23.1, the complaint shall be deemed withdrawn and the proceedings shall be terminated. Any administration charges already paid shall not be refunded.
23.3. Should the procedure require special action in the opinion of the center or the panelist, the costs of which cannot reasonably be covered by the administration charges and/or panelist's fee set out in annex 3, such action shall be undertaken only upon payment by the party or parties instructed by the center of such additional amount as may be determined by the center.
23.4. The regulations do not provide for an award of costs.

H. Other provisions

Article 24. Exoneration
24. Neither the center, the panelist, the registrar, SIDN, nor the management or employees of any of these entities, shall be liable to any party for any damages that may arise pursuant to any act or omission on their part in connection with these regulations and disputes submitted thereunder.
Article 25. Amendment of regulations
25. SIDN may at any time amend or replace the regulations to introduce new regulations on the resolution of disputes concerning domain names. Any such amendment or replacement shall not apply to any proceedings pending at that time.
.nl Glossary of Technical Terms

.INT
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

A-label
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

ARPA
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Dutch .nl domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Delegation
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

DNSSEC
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.nl”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Extension
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

Hostname
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

Http
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

IANA
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Parking
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Pre-Registration
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

Redelegation
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

Registrant
See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .nl
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry Netherlands .nl
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .nl Netherlands
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

RFCs
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

Root
The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

Subdomain
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".nl" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Transfer
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

Trustee
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

U-label
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

Unicode
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

UTF-8
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

Variant
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

WHOIS
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

XML
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.