.org.za Domain Registration

South Africa Domain - .org.za Domain Registration

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Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 9.99 USD
  • 2 Years 19.58 USD
  • 3 Years 29.07 USD
  • 4 Years 38.36 USD
  • 5 Years 47.45 USD
  • 6 Years 56.34 USD
  • 7 Years 65.03 USD
  • 8 Years 73.53 USD
  • 9 Years 81.82 USD
  • 10 Years 89.91 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame

1 Week


Requirements

No Details Are Individual .org.za domain registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .org.za?

No Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .org.za?

Yes Details Are some .org.za domain names restricted?

No Details Does .org.za domain have a special use?

Yes Details Other information I need to know about .org.za?

No Details Are there any additional fees for .org.za?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .org.za?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details


.org.za Domain FAQ

.org.za General FAQ
The Republic of South Africa is a country located at the Southern tip of Africa. It is a multi-ethnic country with many diverse cultures and languages. It has an estimated population of approximately 51 million people, and there are eleven officially recognized languages.

The economy of South Africa is mixed with a high rate of poverty and low GDP per capita. There is a cpr144449003101 rather large income inequality in the country, but it still maintains a thriving informal economy, unlike many other countries with similar issues.

Why should I buy a .org.za domain name?
.org.za is intended for non-profit organizations or non-governmental organizations ( NGO ) in South Africa. ORG refers to organizations and is well suited for non-profits, non-governmental, foundations, philanthropic and cultural institutions, religious, civic, arts, social and fraternal organizations, health and legal services, clubs and community volunteer groups. cpr144449003101 If you are an organization, .org.za is the best way to identify yourself on the internet. The ORG suffix instantly identifies you as an organization dedicated to a cause or dedicated to helping other people. This instance identification will help build the credibility and integrity of your organization.
What name can I register?
Applicant hereby irrevocably represents, warrants and agrees that:

its statements in the Application are accurate and complete;
it has the right without restriction to use and register the Domain Name;
it has a bona fide intention to use the Domain Name on a regular basis on the Internet;
the use or registration of the Domain Name by Applicant does not or will not interfere with, nor infringe the right of any third cpr144449003101 party in any jurisdiction with respect to trade mark, service mark, trade name, company name, close corporation name, copyright or any other intellectual property right;
it is not seeking to use the Domain Name for any unlawful purpose whatsoever, including, without limitation, unfair competition, defamation, passing off or for the purpose of confusing or misleading any person;
at the time of the initial submission of the Application, and at all material times thereafter, it shall have an operational name service from at least two operational Internet servers for the Domain Name. Each server is and will continue to be fully connected to the Internet and be capable of receiving queries relating to the Domain Name and responding thereto;
it has selected the Domain Name without any input, influence or assistance from UniForum.

What is the registration term allowed for .org.za domain names?
The minimum term for .org.za cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .org.za domain name?

NoAre Individual .org.za domain registrations allowed?

YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .org.za?

NoAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .org.za?

YesAre some .org.za domain names restricted?

Violating rights to third parties, names and activities that are illegal are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.

NoDoes .org.za domain have a special use?

YesOther information I need to know about .org.za?

Non-profit organizations providing services in South Africa may be asked to provide description of services along with proof of non-profit status.

NoAre there any cpr144449003101 additional fees for .org.za?

NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .org.za?

NoWHOIS Privacy service available?

Yes.org.za Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

Don't Have All of These Requirements for South Africa .org.za? Our trustee service provides the required local contact information. Note: Registration for 2 years may be required on some extensions.

Available at Checkout

.org.za Trustee / Proxy Fee: per
.org.za Trustee / Proxy Setup Fee:

How long does it take to register my .org.za domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .org.za during general availability is 1 Week. .org.za is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until 1 Week. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .org.za domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 4 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.org.za); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.org.za).
Trustee Service for .org.za

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.

cpr144449003101

Trustee service is not available for this extension

How do I host my .org.za domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .org.za. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
How do I transfer my .org.za domain name?

To transfer your .org.za domain name to bluesit.com, submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .org.za domain cpr144449003101 name out of bluesit.com, contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .org.za requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .org.za domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .org.za domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?

No, .org.za does not cpr144449003101 support Internationalized Domain Names

Grace period for .org.za domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .org.za domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .org.za domain names?
You may visit them here: ZADNA.cpr144449003101
.org.za Domains Dispute & Policy

Last Update 20 August 2012. The most recent source for .org.za domains dispute policy can be found at: www.zadna.org.za/documents/Annexure_G_Alternative_Dispute_Resolution_Regulations.pdf

Chapter 1

Definitions and application

1. Definitions
In these Regulations any word or expression to which a meaning has been assigned in the Act, shall have the meaning so assigned and, unless the context otherwise indicates-

"abusive registration" means a domain name which either- (a) was registered or otherwise acquired in a manner which, at the time when the registration or acquisition took place, took unfair advantage of or was unfairly detrimental to the complainant's rights; or (b) has been used in a manner that takes unfair advantage of, or is unfairly detrimental to the complainant's rights;

"adjudicator" means a dispute resolution adjudicator appointed by a provider to decide a dispute or appeal;

"complainant" means a person who lodges a dispute in terms of these Regulations;

"day" means, unless otherwise stated, any day other than Saturday, Sunday or any public holiday in the Republic, and "days" have a corresponding meaning;

"decision" means a determination made by an adjudicator in accordance with these Regulations ;

"offensive registration" means a domain name in which the complainant cannot necessarily establish rights but the registration of which is contrary to law, contra bonos mores or is likely to give offence to any class of persons;

"party" means a complainant or registrant and "parties" has a corresponding meaning; "procedure" means procedural rules in terms of which a dispute is to be conducted as set out in Chapter Ill;

"provider" means a domain name dispute resolution service provider accredited, in terms of Chapter IV of these Regulations, by the Authority and whose name appears on the list of accredited providers published by the Authority on its website;

"reverse domain name Hijacking" means using these Regulations in bad faith to attempt to deprive a registrant of a domain name;

"rights" and "registered rights" include intellectual property rights, commercial, cultural, linguistic, religious and personal rights protected under South African law, but is not limited thereto; "rules" means the alternative dispute resolution rules provided for in Chapter II;

"second level domain administrator" means an entity licensed, or to be licensed, by the Authority to operate a second level domain in the .za domain name space;

"supplementary procedure" includes word and page limits, guidelines, the means for communicating with the provider and the adjudicator and the form of cover sheets adopted by a provider to supplement the procedure;

"the Act" means the Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, 2002 (Act No. 25 of 2002); and

"whois database" means a database of contact details relating to a domain name provided by a second level domain administrator.

2. Application
{1) These Regulations may include everything provided for under section 69(3) of the Act in connection with a domain name dispute between a complainant and a registrant over the registration and use of an Internet domain name registered in specific second level domains in the .za domain name space, but excluding second level domain names.
{2} Only Internet domain names registered in the .co.za second level domain shall be open to alternative dispute resolution under these Regulations.

Chapter II

Alternative Dispute Resolution Rules

3. Dispute resolution service
(1) A registrant must submit to proceedings under the rules if a complainant asserts, in accordance with the procedure, that -
(a) the complainant has rights in respect of a name or mark which is identical or similar to the domain name and, in the hands of the registrant the domain name is an abusive registration; or
(b) the domain name, in the hands of the registrant, is an offensive registration .
(2) The complainant is required to prove on a balance of probabilities to the adjudicator that the required elements in subregulation (1) are present.
4. Evidence of abusive or offensive registration
(1) Factors, which may indicate that the domain name is an abusive registration includes-
(a) Circumstances indicating that the registrant has registered or otherwise acquired the domain name primarily to -
(i) sell, rent or otherwise transfer the domain name to a complainant or to a competitor of the complainant, or any third party, for valuable consideration in excess of the registrant's reasonable out-of-pocket expenses directly associated with acquiring or using the domain name;
(ii) block intentionally the registration of a name or mark in which the complainant has rights;
(iii) disrupt unfairly the business of the complainant; or
(iv) prevent the complainant from exercising his, her or its rights;
(b) circumstances indicating that the registrant is using, or has registered, the domain name in a way that leads people or businesses to believe that the domain name is registered to, operated or authorised by, or otherwise connected with the complainant;
(c) evidence, in combination with other circumstances indicating that the domain name in dispute is an abusive registration, that the registrant is engaged in a pattern of making abusive registrations;
(d) false or incomplete contact details provided by the registrant in the whois database; or
(e) the circumstance that the domain name was registered as a result of a relationship between the complainant and the reg istrant, and the complainant has -
(i) been using the domain name registration exclusively; and
(ii) paid for the registration or renewal of the domain name registration.
(2) An offensive registration may be indicated if the domain name advocates hatred that is based on race, ethnicity, gender or religion and/or that constitutes incitement to cause harm.
(3) There shall be a rebuttable presumption of abusive registration if the complainant proves that the registrant has been found to have made an abusive registration in three or more disputes in the 12 months before the dispute was filed.
5. How a registrant may indicate that domain name Is not an abusive registration
Factors, which may indicate that the domain name is not an abusive registration, include-
(a) before being aware of the complainant's cause for complaint, the registrant has -
(i) used or made demonstrable preparations to use the domain name in connection with a good faith offering of goods or services;
(ii) been commonly known by the name or legitimately connected with a mark which is identical or similar to the domain name; or
(iii) made legitimate non-commercial or fair use of the domain name;
(b) the domain name is used generically or in a descriptive manner and the registrant is making fair use of it;
(c) that the registrant has demonstrated fair use, which use may include web sites operated solely in tribute to or fair criticism of a person or business: Provided that the burden of proof shifts to the registrant to show that the domain name is not an abusive registration if the domain name (not including the first and second level suffixes) is identical to the mark in which the complainant asserts rights, without any addition; and
(d) in order to succeed in terms of regulcition 4(3), the registrant must rebut the presumption by proving that the registration of the domain name is not an abusive registration.
6. Selection of provider
A complainant must select the provider from among those approved by the Authority by submitting the dispute to that provider in the manner set out in these Regulations.
7. Initiation of dispute and appointment of adjudicator
7. The procedure in Chapter Ill prescribes the process for initiating and conducting a dispute and for appointing the adjudicator.
8. Involvement in disputes
The Authority and second level domain administrators may not participate in the administration or conduct of any dispute before an adjudicator, except as specifically required in terms of these Regulations.
9. Decisions
The possible decisions pursuant to a dispute before an adjudicator are limited to -
(a) in the case of abusive registrations the refusal of the dispute or the transfer of the disputed domain name to the complainant;
(b) in the case of offensive registrations the refusal of the dispute or the deletion and prohibition of the domain name from future registration;
(c) a refusal of the dispute as the dispute constitutes reverse domain name hijacking.
10. Notification and publication
A provider must communicate a decision to the parties in accordance with the procedure and must provide the decision to the Authority for publication on its website.
11. Appeal, availability of Court proceedings, implementation of decision and repeat disputes
(1) Nothing done in terms of these Regulations prevents any party from litigating on any related matter in the High Court of the Republic of South Africa.
(2} If an adjudicator decides that a disputed domain name should be transferred to the complainant, the provider must communicate the decision to the second level domain administrator to be implemented as contemplated by regulation 30(4).
(3} A second level domain administrator must implement the decision, as contemplated by regulation 30, unless it has come to the second level domain administrator's attention, by way of notice of motion or summons citing the second level domain administrator as a party, that either party has commenced legal action in the High Court of the Republic of South Africa concerning the domain name.
(4) If the second level domain administrator learns that legal action has commenced, it may not implement the adjudicator's decision, and the second level domain administrator must not take further action until it receives-
(a) proof of a resolution or settlement between the parties;
(b) proof that the lawsuit has been dismissed or withdrawn; or
(c) a copy of a Court order.
(5} If a dispute has been decided on a previous occasion it will not, subject to sub- regulation (6), be reconsidered by an adjudicator and if the adjudicator finds that the dispute is a resubmission of an earlier dispute, he or she shall reject the dispute without a consideration of its merits.
(6} In determining whether a dispute is a resubmission of an earlier dispute, or contains a material difference that justifies a re-hearing, the adjudicator shall consider the question whether-
(a) the complainant, the registrant and the domain name in issue are the same as in the earlier case;
(b) the substance of the dispute relates to acts that occurred prior to or subsequent to the close of submissions in the earlier case;
(c) if the substance of the dispute relates to acts that occurred prior to the close of submissions in the earlier case, any exceptional grounds for the re-hearing or reconsideration exist, without affecting the integrity of the alternative dispute resolution process;
(d) if the substance of the dispute relates to acts that occurred subsequent to the close of submissions in the earlier dispute, the acts on which the re-filed dispute are based are not, in substance, the same as the acts on which the previous dispute were based.
(7) Subject to regulation 32, either party may appeal a decision under these Regulations.
(8) An appeal panel shall consider appeals on the basis of a full review of the matter and may review procedural matters.
(9) The Authority may refer questions of interpretation of these Regulations to the appeal panel: Provided that a decision rendered as a result of the Authority's referral will not affect any previous decision made in terms of these Regulations.
(1 0) The Authority shall publish decisions of the appeal panel on its website.
12. Transfers during a dispute
(1) A registrant may not transfer, or delete, or refuse to renew a domain name registration whilst proceedings under these Regulations are ongoing, except as a result of a written settlement agreement that the parties reached and after a copy of the settlement agreement, signed by both parties, has been delivered to the provider who must issue relevant instructions to the second level domain administrator after he or she confirmed the validity of the written settlement agreement between the parties.
(2) A registrant may update technical information, such as name servers, for the domain name provided that such updates do not result in the transfer or deletion of a domain name subject to a dispute.
(3) Where an update of technical information results in the transfer or deletion of the domain name, the registrant shall be liable for any damages that may arise as a result of such transfer or deletion, if the registrant was aware of a dispute lodged under these Regulations in respect of such domain name.
(4) Where a second level domain administrator is informed of a domain name dispute, the second level domain administrator must take steps to ensure that the domain name is not transferred, or allowed to be deleted during the course of the dispute.
13. Precedent
(1) An adjudicator must consider and be guided by previous decisions made in terms of these Regulations, hereinafter referred to as "national decisions", and decisions by foreign dispute resolution providers, hereinafter referred to as "foreign decisions".
(2) An adjudicator must be guided by national, foreign and international law.
(3) An adjudicator must provide in his or her decision the full reference to national and foreign decisions as well as national, foreign and international law that he or she considered.
14. Amendment of Rules
14. If the rules have already been invoked by the submission of a dispute to a provider, then the version of the rules in effect at the time it was invoked applies to the dispute.

CHAPTER III

Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedure

15. Communications
(1) When a dispute is lodged with a provider, the provider must forward a copy of the dispute to the registrant who is deemed to have been notified of the dispute when the provider-
(a) has sent a hard copy of the dispute to the registrant's postal, physical or facsimile address as displayed on the relevant second level domain administrator's WHOIS database; and
(b) has sent the dispute in electronic format including annexes to the extent available in that form by e-mail to the e-mail addresses of the registrant and his or her technical, administrative, and billing contacts.
(2) The parties can at any time select a preferred means to receive communications from the provider or other parties by notifying the provider in writing.
(3) When sending a communication, the parties and the provider must retain-
(a) a confirmation of transmission, when a communication is sent by facsimile;
(b) a receipt, when a communication is sent by registered post or courier; or
(c) a record of a transmission of a communication that is sent electronically.
(4) Any communication to the provider or the adjudicator must comply with the provider's supplementary procedure.
(5) Communications must be made in the language prescribed in regulation 25 and e-mail communications must be sent in plain text.
(6) A party must update its contact details by notifying the provider and the second level domain administrator in writing within three days of any change.
(7) Unless otherwise communicated to the parties by an adjudicator, a communication sent in terms of the procedure is deemed to have been sent -
(a) if sent by facsimile on the date shown on the confirmation of transmission;
(b) if sent by registered post or courier service on the date marked on the receipt; or
(c) on the date that the communication was transmitted: Provided that the date of transmission is verifiable, if it is transmitted electronically.
(8) Unless otherwise stated, all time periods start to run and shall be calculated from the date of commencement of the dispute as contemplated in regulation 17(2).{9) When sending a communication -
(a) an adjudicator must send a copy of the communication to the provider;
(b) the provider must send a copy of the communication to all the parties to the dispute; and
(c) a party must send a copy of the communication to the provider.
{10) It is the responsibility of the sender of any communication to retain a record of the transmission.
16. Dispute
(1) Subject to a provider's supplementary procedure, any person may initiate a dispute by submitting the dispute in paper format, in triplicate and in electronic format to any approved provider: Provided the dispute complies with these Regulations.
(2) Subject to a provider's supplementary procedure, the dispute must -
(a) request that the dispute be submitted to an adjudicator for adjud ication;
(b) provide the name, physical address (a domicilium citandi et executandi within the Republic of South Africa), e-mail addresses and the telephone and fax numbers of the complainant and of any representative authorised to act on behalf of the complainant in the dispute;
(c) specify a preferred method for transmission of material or communications sent in both paper format and electronic copy;
(d) specify whether a single or three adjudicators must decide the dispute and specify how payment of the fixed fee has been made with accompanying proof of payment;
(e) provide detail of the registrant including the name and all contact information of the registrant to enable the provider to send a copy of the dispute to the registrant as provided for in terms of regulation 17{2);
(f) specify the domain name(s) that is the subject of the dispute, which may be more than one domain name: Provided that the same registrant registered the domain names;
(g) identify the second level domain administrator with whom the domain name(s) is registered at the time the dispute is filed;
(h) specify, in detail, the rights on which the dispute is based for the adjudicator to be able to reach a decision and provide full details of the registered right where the complainant relies on registered rights such as trademark rights;
(i) detail reasons why the domain name, in the hands of the registrant, is an abusive registration or an offensive registration or both, and the remedies sought;
(j) identify any other legal proceedings that have been initiated or terminated relating to any domain name that is the subject of the dispute;
(k) state that the complainant submits to the jurisdiction of the High Court of the Republic of South Africa;
(I) conclude with the following statement followed by the signature of the complainant or his or her authorised representative and be administered as an oath or affirmation by a Commissioner of Oaths:

"The complainant certifies that the information contained in this dispute is, to the best of complainant's knowledge, both complete and accurate, that this dispute is not being used for any improper purpose, such as to harass the registrant, and that the assertions in this dispute are warranted under these Regulations and under applicable law.
Signature of Complainant
Date: Place:

I certify that before administering the oath/affirmation I asked the deponent the following questions and wrote down her/his answers in his/her presence:
(i) Do you know and understand the contents of the declaration? Answer:
(ii) Do you have any objection to taking the prescribed oath or affirmation? Answer:
(iii) Do you consider the prescribed oath or affirmation to be binding on your conscience? Answer:

I certify that the deponent has acknowledged that she/he knows and understands the contents of this declaration. The deponent utters the following words: "I swear that the contents of this declaration cpr144449003101 are true, so help me God." I "I truly affirm that the contents of the declaration are true". The signature/mark of the deponent is affixed to the declaration in my presence.
Commissioner of Oaths Full Name:
Designation:
Area:
Office held ex officio: Business address: Date:
Place:";
annex any documentary or other evidence together with a schedule (n) be accompanied by any evidence available in electronic form; and (o) comply with any word limitation imposed by a provider in the provider's supplementary procedure.

17. Notification of dispute
(1) A provider must ensure that the dispute complies with the provisions of these Regulations, and that the fixed fee has been paid.
(2) If the dispute complies with these Regulations, the provider must forward a copy of the dispute, together with the explanatory cover sheet prescribed by the provider's supplementary procedure, to the registrant in accordance with regulation 15(1), which date shall be the date of commencement of the dispute.
(3} If the provider finds that the dispute does not comply with these Regulations, the provider must immediately notify the complainant of the nature of the non-compliance.
(4) The complainant has five days within which to correct any non-compliance, failing which the dispute is deemed to have been withdrawn, that can only be cured by the filing of a new dispute.
(5) If the provider has not received the fixed fee from the complainant within 10 days of receiving the dispute, the dispute is deemed to have been withdrawn and terminated.
(6) The provider must notify the complainant, the registrant, the relevant second level domain administrator, and the Authority of the date of commencement of the dispute, on such date.
18. Response
(1) Within 20 days of the date of commencement of the dispute the registrant must submit a response in paper format, in triplicate and in electronic format to the provider. (2} Subject to a provider's supplementary procedure, the response must -
(a) respond to the statements and allegations contained in the dispute and detail any grounds to prove that the domain name is neither an abusive registration nor offensive registration as the case may be;
(b) provide the name, physical address (a domicilium citandi et executandi within the Republic of South Africa), e-mail addresses and the telephone and fax numbers of the registrant and of any representative authorised to act on behalf of the registrant in the dispute;
(c) specify a preferred method for transmission of material or communications sent in both paper format and electronic copy;
(d) if the complainant has elected a single adjudicator in the dispute, state whether the registrant elects instead to have the dispute decided by three adjudicators;
(e) identify any other legal proceedings that have been commenced or terminated in connection with or relating to any of the domain name(s) that are the subject of the dispute;
(f) conclude with the following statement followed by the signature of the registrant or his or her authorised representative and be administered as an oath or affirmation by a Commissioner of Oaths:
"The registrant certifies that the information contained in this response is, to the best of registrant's knowledge, both complete and accurate, that this response is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass the complainant, and that the assertions in this response are warranted under these Regulations and under applicable law.
Signature of Registrant Date:
Place:
I certify that before administering the oath/affirmation I asked the deponent the following questions and wrote down her/his answers in his/her presence:
(i) Do you know and understand the contents of the declaration? Answer:
(ii) Do you have any objection to taking the prescribed oath or affirmation? Answer:
(iii) Do you consider the prescribed oath or affirmation to be binding on your conscience? Answer:
I certify that the deponent has acknowledged that she/he knows and understands the contents of this declaration. The deponent utters thefollowing words: "I swear that the contents of this declaration are true, so help me God." I "I truly affirm that the contents of the declaration are true". The signature/mark of the deponent is affixed to the declaration in my presence.
Commissioner of Oaths Full Name:
Designation:
Area:
Office held ex officio: Business address: Date:
Place:" ;
(g) annex any documentary or other evidence, together with a schedule indexing such evidence;
(h) be accompanied by any evidence available in electronic form; and
(i) comply with any word limitation imposed by a provider in the provider's supplementary procedure.
(3) If the registrant does not submit a response, the adjudicator must decide the matter based on the dispute contemplated in regulation 16(1).
19. Reply
(1} Within five days of receiving the response from the provider, the complainant may submit a reply to the registrant's response to the provider.
(2} If a reply is submitted it must be submitted in paper and electronic format and comply with a provider's supplementary procedure.
(3} Upon the expiry of the five days, but no later than two days thereafter, the provider will appoint an adjudicator in accordance with regulation 20.
20. Appointment of adjudicator and timing of decision
(1) Each provider must maintain and publish a list of adjudicators and their qualifications that is available to the public.
(2) If the complainant or the registrant does not elect three adjudicators, the provider must appoint a single adjudicator, being the next available adjudicator appointed by rotation from its list of adjudicators, within five days following receipt of the response by the provider, or the lapse of the time period for the submission of the response.
(3) The fees for a single adjudicator must be paid by the complainant in accordance with regulation 34.
(4) If either the complainant or the registrant elects to have the dispute decided by three adjudicators, the provider must appoint three adjudicators in accordance with subregulation (6).
(5) The fees for three adjudicators must be paid by the complainant, except where the election for three adjudicators was made by the registrant, in which case the applicable fees will be shared equally between the parties.
(6) In the event that the complainant or the registrant elects to have a dispute decided by three adjudicators, the provider must appoint the next three available adjudicators appointed by rotation from its list of adjudicators.
(7) Once an adjudicator is appointed, the provider must notify the parties of the adjudicator appointed and the date by which the adjudicator must forward a decision to the provider.
21. Impartiality and independence
(1) An adjudicator must be impartial and independent and must disclose to the provider any circumstances affecting the adjudicator's impartiality or independence before accepting an appointment to decide a dispute.
(2) If, at any stage during the dispute, circumstances arise that may affect the impartiality or independence of an adjudicator, that adjudicator must promptly disclose such circumstances to the provider.
(3) If an adjudicator has disclosed circumstances that may affect the impartiality or independence of the adjudicator, the provider should determine whether an alternate adjudicator should be appointed.
22. Communication between parties and adjudicator
(1) No party, or authorised representative of a party, may communicate with an adjudicator except as provided for in these Regulations.
(2) All communications between a party and the adjudicator must be sent through the provider in the manner determined by the provider's supplementary procedure.
23. Transmission to adjudicator
The provider must forward the dispute, response, and reply, if any, to the adjudicator as soon as an adjudicator is appointed.
24. General powers of adjudicator
(1) An adjudicator must ensure that the parties are treated with equality and that each party is given a fair opportunity to present its case.
(2) An adjudicator must ensure that the dispute is handled as expeditiously as possible.
(3) An adjudicator must determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence.
(4) An adjudicator must decide a request by a party to consolidate multiple domain name disputes in accordance with these Regulations.
25. Language of proceedings
{1) Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, the dispute and the response must be prepared in English.
{2) If a party wishes to submit a dispute or response in any other official South African language referred to in section 6{1) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, other than English, the provider must arrange translation at the expense of that party and suspend proceedings until he or she receives the translation of the dispute or response.
26. Further statements
In addition to a dispute, a response, and a reply, the adjudicator may request further statements or documents relevant to the dispute, response or reply from either of the parties.
27. Adjudication
Adjudication will be done on the documentation submitted under these Regulations and no oral submissions will be allowed.
28. Default
{1) If a party does not comply with any of the time periods established by this procedure or the adjudicator, the adjudicator must proceed to a decision on the dispute.
{2) If a party does not comply with any provision of or requirement under this procedure or any request from the adjudicator, the adjudicator may, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, draw such inferences therefrom, as he or she considers appropriate.
29. Adjudicator decisions
(1) An adjudicator must decide a dispute in accordance with the principles of law, on the basis of the dispute, response, and reply, if any, and further statements or documents submitted in accordance with these Regulations.
(2) The adjudicator must forward its decision on the dispute to the provider within 14 days of its appointment under regulation 20.
{3) The decision must be in writing, provide the reasons on which it is based, indicate the date on which it was rendered and identify the name of the adjudicator.
(4) If three adjudicators consider a dispute, the consentient views of at least two adjudicators shall constitute the decision.
(5) If one adjudicator has a dissentient view, such view should also accompany the decision.
{6) Decisions and dissentient views must comply with the guidelines as to length set forth in the provider's supplementary procedure.
30. Communication of decision to parties
(1) Within three days after receiving the decision from the adjudicator, the provider must communicate the full text of the decision to each party and the Authority.
(2) After five days of notifying the parties and the Authority of the decision, the provider shall forward the decision to the second level domain administrator.
(3) Upon receiving the decision from the provider, the second level domain administrator shall wait a further five days before implementing the decision.
(4) The second level domain administrator shall implement the decision within two days after the expiry of the five-day waiting period.
(5) A decision must be published in full except those parts ruled to be confidential by an adjudicator.
31. Withdrawal, settlement, or other grounds for termination
(1) If, subject to the provisions of regulation 17(3) and 17(4), a dispute is deemed to have been withdrawn, the provider must refund the complainant the fixed fee less any administration costs incurred to date.
(2) If, before the appointment of an adjudicator, the parties agree on a settlement, subject to the provisions of regulation 12{1), the provider must terminate the dispute and refund the complainant the fixed fee less any administration costs incurred to date.
{3) If, after the appointment of an adjudicator but before the adjudicator's decision is made, the parties agree to settle subject to the provisions of regulation 12{1), the adjudicator must terminate the dispute, and the parties shall forfeit all fees paid to date.
(4) If, before the adjudicator's decision is made, it becomes unnecessary or impossible to continue with the dispute, the adjudicator must terminate the dispute, unless a party objects to such termination.
(5) In the event that the dispute is terminated in accordance with subregulation (4), the parties shall forfeit all fees paid to date.
32. Appeal
(1) Either party shall have the right to appeal a decision by submitting a statement of intention to appeal together with the appeal fee provided for in regulation 34(3), which must within 15 days be followed by an appeal notice: Provided that only a decision by a single adjudicator, and not a decision of three adjudicators, can be appealed.
{2) A statement of intention to appeal should contain such information to make it clear that an appeal is requested and should not contain the actual grounds or reasons for appeal.
{3) An appeal notice may not exceed 1000 words and must set out detailed grounds and reasons for the appeal.
(4) The provider shall forward the statement of intention to appeal or appeal notice, as the case may be, to the other party within three days of receipt of –
(a) the statement of the intention to appeal and the appeal fee; or
(b) the appeal notice.
may submit an appeal notice response to the provider.
(6) An appeal notice response may not exceed 1000 words, must set out detailed grounds and reasons why the appeal should be rejected.
{7) Following the filing of an appeal notice response, or the expiry of the deadline to do so, the provider shall appoint an appeal panel of three adjudicators.
(8) The adjudicators on the appeal panel must be impartiai and must consist of -
(a) the chairperson of the provider's group of adjudicators; and
(b) the next available two adjudicators appointed by rotation from the provider's list.
{9) The appeal panel will not take into consideration any new evidence presented in an appeal notice or appeal notice response, unless they believe that it is in the interests of justice to do so.
(1 0) Regulation 29 and 30 shall apply mutatis mutandis to appeal decisions, except that-
(a) appeal decisions must be returned by the appeal panel to the provider within 20 days of the appointment of the last adjudicator,
(b) appeal decisions cannot be subject to any further appeal in terms of these Regulations.
33. Effect of Court proceedings
(1) If legal proceedings are initiated during a dispute in respect of a domain name that is the subject of the dispute, the adjudicator must suspend the dispute immediately.
(2) In the event that a party initiates any legal proceedings during a dispute it must promptly notify the adjudicator and the provider in accordance with these Regulations.
34. Fees
(1) A complainant must pay a fixed fee in the sum of R10,000-00 to the provider for one adjudicator as contemplated in regulation 20(3) or a fixed fee in the sum of R24,000-00 for three adjudicators to decide the dispute, if the complainant elects to have the dispute decided by three adjudicators.
{2) If a registrant elects in terms of regulation 18(2){d) to have the dispute decided by three adjudicators, rather than a single adjudicator elected by the complainant, the registrant and the complainant must pay the provider a fixed fee in the sum of R12,000-00 each.
(3) The appeal fee for an appeal under regulation 32 is a fixed fee in the sum of R24,000-00.
(4) A complainant or registrant may approach the Authority, in writing, for financial assistance to lodge a dispute or defend a dispute, which assistance may be considered at the discretion of the Authority taking into account the financial means of the complainant or registrant.
(5) Upon receipt of the fees required in terms this regulation, the provider must immediately pay 10% of the fees to the Authority, which fees the Authority must use exclusively to fund other complainants and registrants seeking financial assistance.
35. Exclusion of liability
A second level domain administrator shall not be liable to a party for anything done or omitted in connection with any proceedings under these Regulations: Provided such second level domain administrator has implemented the decision following such proceedings.
36. Procedure modifications
If the procedure has already been invoked by the submission of a dispute to a provider, then the version of the procedure in effect at the time it was invoked applies to the dispute.

CHAPTER IV

Accreditation of Providers

37. Application procedure
An applicant for accreditation as a provider must submit an application to the Authority.
38. Application
(1) Applications should contain-
(a) an overview of an applicant's capabilities and background in providing alternative dispute resolution services, including a description of the applicant's track record of handling the clerical aspects of expedited alternative dispute resolution proceedings, if any;
(b) a list of the names and qualifications of the adjudicators the applicant proposes to include on its published list, a description of the screening requirements applicant has used in selecting adjudicators to be included on its list and an indication whether it intends to make exclusive use of adjudicators who are residents or citizens of the Republic of South Africa;
(c) a description of training and educational measures the applicant proposes to employ for listed adjudicators with respect to domain name disputes and these Regulations;
(d) a commitment by the applicant not to prevent or discourage any of its adjudicators from serving as adjudicators for other providers;
(e) a copy of the applicant's proposed supplementary procedure, if any;
(f) documentation of applicant's proposed internal operating procedures that the Authority must hold in confidence if requested;
(g) a proposed schedule for applicant's implementation of its programme for administering disputes under these Regulations, including a statement of applicant's administrative capacity in terms of number of disputes initiated on a monthly basis;
(h) a statement of any requested limitations on the number of disputes that applicant handles, either during a start-up period or on a permanent basis;
(i) a description of how the applicant proposes to administer disputes, including its interactions with parties to the dispute, second level domain administrators, the Authority, andother approved providers; and
(j) a description of how the applicant intends to publish decisions of adjudicators in disputes it administers and a commitment to provide the Authority with copies of all decisions of adjudicators not published.
(2) In general, the Authority examines the applications to determine whether the applicant has demonstrated an ability to handle proceedings in an expedited, online context in an orderly and fair manner.
(3) An applicant must-
(a) have a track record in competently handling the clerical aspects of the procedure and administrative capabilities or must provide a detailed plan for providing those capabilities;
(b) propose a list of at least five highly qualified neutral persons from the public and private sectors that are experts in intellectual property rights, commercial, cultural, linguistic, religious and personal rights who have agreed to serve as adjudicators;
(c) show how it shall ensure that the listed adjudicators are trained concerning these Regulations, the technology of domain names, and the legal principles applicable to domain name disputes;
(d) state whether it intends to make exclusive use of adjudicators who are citizens or residents of the Republic of South Africa;
(e) indicate a familiarity with international domain name dispute resolution mechanisms and processes and foreign decisions and must indicate its plan to draw on these to provide an international benchmark for a process that is unique to the Republic of South Africa;
(f) demonstrate in its supplementary procedure that the applicant understands these Regulations; and
(g) show that both the applicant and its panel of adjudicators are representative of women, disabled and historically disadvantaged individuals where representivity will also be assessed in terms of the Codes of Good Practice for Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment published by the Department of Trade and Industry, as such Codes may be amended or substituted from time to time.
.org.za Glossary of Technical Terms

.INT
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

A-label
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

ARPA
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each South African .org.za domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Delegation
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

DNSSEC
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.org.za”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Extension
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

Hostname
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

Http
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

IANA
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Parking
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Pre-Registration
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

Redelegation
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

Registrant
See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .org.za
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry South Africa .org.za
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .org.za South Africa
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

RFCs
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

Root
The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

Subdomain
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".org.za" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Transfer
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

Trustee
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

U-label
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

Unicode
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

UTF-8
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

Variant
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

WHOIS
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

XML
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.