.pm Domain Registration

Saint Pierre Domain - .pm Domain Registration

Top Selling Saint-Pierrais Domains

.pm Registry logo

Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 16.99 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame



Yes Details Are Individual .pm domain registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .pm?

Yes Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .pm?

Yes Details Are some .pm domain names restricted?

No Details Does .pm domain have a special use?

Yes Details Other information I need to know about .pm?

Yes Details Are there any additional fees for .pm?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .pm?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? Yes Details

.pm Domain FAQ

.pm General FAQ
.PM is the Internet country top-level domain (ccTLD) for St. Pierre and Miquelon. .PM is intended for individuals and organizations that reside in the European Economic area or in Switzerland. St. Pierre & Miquelon is a small French-owned territory just off the coast of Newfoundland. Individuals must indicate cpr144449003101 their birth information. For the last 13 years the French registry, AFNIC has refused all registrations under the .PM but have now made it open for registrations. The .PM domain name registry is operated by AFNIC. All St. Pierre & Miquelon domain names are registered through them.
Why should I buy a .pm domain name?
Take advantage of registering the .pm domain name since the French registry, AFNIC has recently allowed .pm domain name for registration. Also, on February 3rd AFNIC recently introduced the special characters in web addresses .pm. In all, 30 new characters will be introduced, including most accents and æ, ç cpr144449003101 and œ. Before, domain names were restricted to numbers and Latin letters without accents. The registration of .pm domain name, along with the addition to AFNIC's special characters and accents will become a victory for the French language and a shrewd business idea for those that register a .pm.
What name can I register?
Article 2.4 - Domain Names subject to prior review

20. AFNIC develops and maintains a list of domain names whose registration is subject to prior review.

21. The list is available on the AFNIC website.

22. This list changes over time and applicants should familiarize themselves with it, it being understood that the list published online is not exhaustive, given that the simple fact of publishing some of these terms may offend certain members of the public.

23. For this type of domain name, the Registrar sends AFNIC the necessary supporting documents beforehand to ensure that the applicant is entitled to register the domain name in question and that it is compliant with the provisions of the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications Act.

24. In order to register a term subject to prior review, the applicant must ensure that the domain name:

  • is not liable to disrupt public order or morality, or the rights guaranteed by the French Constitution or French law;
  • is not liable to infringe intellectual property rights or personal rights or is not identical or related to that of the French Republic, of a local authority or group of local authorities, of an institution or a local or national public service, unless the applicant provides proof of a legitimate interest and is acting in good faith.

25. Pursuant to article R 20-44-43, the existence of a legitimate interest may be characterized by:

  • the use of the domain name or an identical or related name, as part of an offer of goods or services, or proof that the applicant has taken preparations to do so;
  • the applicant is known by an identical name or one related to this domain name, even in the absence of any recognised rights to that name;
  • the applicant's non-commercial use of the domain name or related name with no intention to mislead consumers or harm the reputation of a name to which a right has been recognized or established.

26. Pursuant to article R 20-44-43, bad faith may be characterized by:

  • the applicant having obtained or applied for the registration of the name primarily in order to sell, lease or transfer it in some manner to a public body, a local authority or the holder of an identical or related name to which a right has been recognized, and not to effectively operate it;
  • the applicant having obtained or applied for the registration of a domain name primarily in order to harm the reputation of the holder of a legitimate interest or a recognised right to that name or a related name, or that of a product or service likened to that name in the minds of consumers;
  • the applicant having obtained or applied for the registration of a domain name primarily in order to profit from the reputation of the holder of a legitimate interest or a recognised right to that name or a related name, or that of a product or service likened to that name, by creating confusion in the minds of consumers;

27. When considering the application, AFNIC reserves the right to request any supporting evidence or documents it considers necessary.

28.If the checks are successful, AFNIC sends an authorisation code to the Registrar, enabling it to register the said domain name in accordance with the Procedures Manual.

29. If the application does not meet the review criteria, AFNIC:

  • sends the registrar a rejection email;
  • shall consider the following application concerning the same domain name.

30. In the event of any dispute, the "Legal Procedure" article shall be applied.

What is the registration term allowed for .pm domain names?
The minimum term for .pm cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .pm domain name?

YesAre Individual .pm domain registrations allowed?

YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .pm?

YesAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .pm?

Companies having their registered office or principal place of business in the territory of a Member State of the European Union (EU) or in the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. One of the following is required: Siren/Siret number, DUNS number, company registration number, business certificate number or other valid local identifier specific to a country of the EU or territories listed. The Registrant and the administrative contact must be reachable and must provide a valid telephone number, address and e-mail address. Supporting documentation may be required.

EU or international trademark specifically stating France is also accepted, but local EU address is still required (select Trustee Service at checkout if needed).

Personal registrations possible, please provide Birthdate, Birthplace, Birthcity and postcode in one of the above countries. Documentation may be required.

YesAre some .pm domain names restricted?

Violating rights of third parties, names and activities contrary to morality, public order, and against the laws of France are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.

NoDoes .pm domain have a special use?

YesOther information I need cpr144449003101 to know about .pm?

AFNIC may delete, on its own decision, some domain names that do not follow the naming charter after identification operations and/or eligibility checks. Reserved domain names of the registry for special use or special individuals or organizations can be found here: http://www.afnic.fr/obtenir/chartes/fondamentaux.

YesAre there any additional fees for .pm?

Ownership change costs the same as new registration, and resets the expiration date.

NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .pm?

NoWHOIS Privacy service available?

Yes.pm Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

How long does it take to register my .pm domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .pm during general availability is Instant. .pm is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .pm domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 3 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.pm); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.pm).
Trustee Service for .pm

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.


Trustee Service Is Available for this extension

How do I host my .pm domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .pm. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
How do I transfer my .pm domain name?

To transfer your .pm domain name to bluesit.com, submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .pm domain cpr144449003101 name out of bluesit.com, contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .pm requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .pm domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .pm domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?
Grace period for .pm domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .pm domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .pm domain names?
You may visit them here: AFNIC.cpr144449003101
.pm Domains Dispute & Policy

Last Update 20 August 2012. The most source for .pm domains dispute policy can be found at: www.afnic.fr/en/dispute-resolution/

Dispute Resolution
Pursuant to paragraph 4 of the Annex to the Order of 19 February 2010, AFNIC may only intervene in accordance with a court order handed down after legal proceedings or as part of the Syreli procedure.

Legal proceedings

AFNIC does not interfere in judicial proceedings relating to domain names for which it is responsible.

AFNIC does not have the authority to take precautionary measures, since they can only be implemented further to a court order taken to meet the requirements of this article.

It is therefore the sole responsibility of the third parties concerned to take all the appropriate measures to stop any violation they claim to infringe their rights.

Since AFNIC is required to implement a court order taken as a result of legal proceedings, it is totally unnecessary to have it intervene or ask it to intervene in such proceedings. . This being said, AFNIC reserves the right to initiate a request for abuse of process as and when required, and to seek reimbursement of the expenses incurred by same.

AFNIC satisfies this requirement under the following conditions:

  • After either party has notified AFNIC, by bailiff, of an interim court decision in pursuance of Article 514 of the French Code of Civil Procedure and justification that the party has been notified of the decision; (Or)
  • After the earliest petitioner has notified AFNIC, by bailiff, of an interim court decision in pursuance of Article 515 of the French Code of Civil Procedure and substantiation that the party has been notified of the decision, and upon presentation of any warranty ordered by the judge in pursuance of Article 517 of the French Code of Civil Procedure ; (Or)
  • After the earliest petitioner has notified AFNIC, by bailiff, of a final court decision that has the force of res judicata, pursuant to Article 500 of the Code of Civil Procedure, and with due substantiation. For example, the substantiation may comprise the forwarding of a certificate of non-recourse or of the appeal decision.

AFNIC cannot respond to requests that fail to comply with these conditions and shall not be bound by letters, copies of summons or subpoena sent by applicants.

Should a decision applied by AFNIC be reformed (further to withdrawal, appeal, reversal of judgment, etc.), AFNIC will apply the new decision under the same conditions of service as set out above.

AFNIC shall not be held liable on any grounds whatsoever for the operations it performs pursuant to a court decision, or to a handed down as part of a Syreli procedure, and the applicant shall hold AFNIC harmless against any claims.

Syreli Procedure

The holder of a domain name agrees without reserve to be governed by the Syreli procedure managed by AFNIC.

Syreli procedure as approved by the decree of 21 October 2011 is available on the AFNIC website.

AFNIC is not bound by any other alternative dispute resolution procedure.

Domain names involve several types of rights. The allocation of domain names is on a "first come, first served" basis. However, unlike similar trademarks which can co-exist in different classes, a domain name is unique in nature: there cannot be two identical domain names registered under the same extension. In addition, several persons may claim different rights concerning the same domain name (intellectual property rights, the right to the name, commercial rights etc.). It is in this type of context that disputes arise. In order to reach a solution, AFNIC provides several options in the form of procedures that can be used, either as part of litigation or not, or by any individual or entity, whether in their capacity as a rights holder or as the holder of a domain name.

At this stage it is important to recall the roles and responsibilities of each of the stakeholders involved:

AFNIC is responsible for implementing and enforcing the provisions of the naming policy; and in certain cases may have to hand down decisions pursuant to Articles L 45 et seq. of the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications Act

The applicant is responsible for ensuring that the term it wishes to use does not infringe the rights of third parties.

The rights holder is responsible for protecting and defending its rights.

The Registrar is responsible for ensuring compliance by its customers with all the legal and regulatory provisions currently in effect and with the naming policies.

Through its policy of litigation management, AFNIC wishes to allow each stakeholder to fully understand their role in the process and to adopt the strategy that best suits their situation. In order to provide the most complete information possible, without being exhaustive, AFNIC provides access from its website to the various decisions handed down by the courts, by extra-judicial bodies, or by itself.

1. Prevention and monitoring

First and foremost, prevention and monitoring are the best defence! Companies should develop a filing strategy, adapting its records and registrations to its business, so that it can quickly note any litigious conduct, either by means of in-house monitoring, or by using an automated monitoring service (certain registrars offer this type of service), so that they:

  • are informed as quickly as possible and cpr144449003101 can rapidly stop the litigious conduct in question
  • do not lose the evidence of bad faith of the registrant,
  • do not risk an objection being raised for their lack of response in the event of an application for the adoption of interim measures.

It is possible at this stage not to engage in legal or extralegal proceedings, and to favour direct negotiations with the registrant of the domain name: the contact details of the registrant are available in the Whois database, subject to the obligations relating to the protection of personal data.

2. Non-litigious solutions available to rights holders

2.1. Write to the administrative contact of a domain name having opted to be classified as restricted information

In accordance with the law of 6 January 1978 and at the request of the CNIL, France's data protection authority, AFNIC has set up a specific protection system for the personal data of Individuals. These data, which are protected by default, are not accessible via the public Whois service and are displayed as "restricted information". They are only disclosed if the registrant makes the request itself.

To contact a registrant having opted to be classified as restricted information, the claimant can use the tool to link with the administrative contact of the domain name available at the following address:

This tool does not disclose the identity of the registrant and its use is the sole responsibility of the sender of the message. AFNIC proceeds to transfer the message issued without checking either its contents, or its outcome, or the accuracy of the address of the recipient, or the identity of the issuer. There is no guarantee of a response from the administrative contact, or even any guarantee that the latter has received and/or read the message sent. The administrative contact is free to reply and to decide or not whether to transfer the e-mail to the registrant of the domain name if the administrative contact and registrant are two different people

2.2. Request for the disclosure of personal data

AFNIC may, at the request of third parties, lift the anonymity of an individual (natural person), who has registered a domain name and has chosen the "restricted publication" option under any of the extensions managed by AFNIC, i.e. .fr, .pm, .re, .tf, .wf, and .yt

AFNIC communicates the contact details of the registrant within a few days to the issuer of the request, if AFNIC finds the registrant has used the same or nearly identical reproduction of a protected sign (typosquatting, dotsquatting, etc.) In addition, AFNIC's scope of competence does not include the content of the website. This means any application must be supported by evidence proving its validity. To submit a duly justified request for the disclosure of personal information to AFNIC, the claimant must use the form available at the following address:

AFNIC cannot be held liable for a refusal to satisfy a request for the disclosure of personal data. The information however is forwarded by AFNIC to the competent authorities to whom the request should be made.

2.3. Application to check compliance with the naming policy

According to the naming policy for domain names registered under any of the extensions managed by AFNIC, any individual or legal entity residing or having its headquarters or principal place of business in one of the territories specified below may apply to register or renew a domain name in each of the top-level domains:

  • within the territory of one of the member states of the European Union;
  • within the territory of the following countries: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.

Whatever the quality of the registrant (individual or entity), it is possible for a rights holder to ask AFNIC to carry out data checks as part of qualification operations in order to ensure the eligibility and/or reachability of the holder of the domain name. The qualification process consists of two (2) distinct processes, namely the verification process and the substantiation process.

The substantiation process is initiated in several cases:

  • After a verification used to highlight the implausible nature of the eligibility data and /or the reachability of the holder;
  • When the verification after a report proves to be fruitless;

As a result of a duly substantiated complaint from a third party by means of the verification form available on the AFNIC website; the request is made to AFNIC with supporting documentation via the form available at the following address:

When the substantiation process is initiated, AFNIC sends the registrar a substantiation request and informs the holder and the third party of same. Concomitantly, AFNIC suspends the portfolio of the holder of the domain name for a period of thirty (30) days. If, after this period, there is no evidence to conclude that the holder complies with the eligibility and reachability rules, AFNIC informs the registrar, the holder and the third party, and blocks the holder's portfolio for a maximum period of thirty (30) days. If, after this second suspension period, there is no evidence to conclude that the holder complies with the eligibility and reachability rules, AFNIC informs the registrar, the holder and the third party, and deletes the holder’s portfolio.

3. Litigation solutions available to rights holders

3.1. Extrajudicial procedures for dispute resolution

In accordance with Article L.45-6 of the French Electronic Communications and Telecommunications Act, the registrant of a domain name undertakes to comply with procedures for resolving disputes concerning domain names in accordance with the regulations specific to each of the procedures available here:

These procedures are exclusively designed to resolve disputes relating to the registration of domain names between registrants and third parties, and are in no way designed to resolve disputes relating to the liabilities or responsibilities of AFNIC or Registrars. AFNIC undertakes to implement decisions taken pursuant to a dispute resolution procedure in a timely manner.

3.2. Legal proceedings

Whatever the case, claimants retain the right to go to court in order to resolve a dispute over a domain name. The choice of the court having jurisdiction to decide on the case is the most difficult issue because it depends on several criteria. In general, jurisdiction is attributed to the court competent for the place of residence of the registrant of the domain name in dispute, but may vary depending on the amount of damages at stake and the person behind the case.

While these procedures can result in the granting of damages, the lead-times and costs involved as well as their outcome are difficult to predict, as is the enforcement of the judgment ("enforcement proceedings" when the decision is rendered by a foreign court). There is no need to incur AFNIC's liability for it to implement court decisions: the Naming Policy sets out the conditions under which court decisions are implemented.

.pm Glossary of Technical Terms

A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Saint-Pierrais .pm domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.pm”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .pm
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry Saint Pierre .pm
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .pm Saint Pierre
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".pm" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.