.sg Domain Registration

Singapore Domain - .sg Domain Registration

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.sg Registry logo

Registration Pricing

  • 1 Year 49.00 USD
  • 2 Years 96.04 USD

Application Fee

Registration Time Frame

1 Day


Requirements

Yes Details Are Individual .sg domain registrations allowed?

Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .sg?

Yes Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .sg?

Yes Details Are some .sg domain names restricted?

No Details Does .sg domain have a special use?

No Details Other information I need to know about .sg?

No Details Are there any additional fees for .sg?

No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .sg?

No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?

Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? Yes Details


.sg Domain FAQ

.sg General FAQ
The Republic of Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia located off the southern tip of Malaysia. It is an island country, made up of 63 islands and is highly urbanized. The estimated population of Singapore is 5.2 million people, and the official languages are English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil.

The economy is largely dependent on the exportation and refining of imported cpr144449003101 goods, and the electronics, petroleum refining, chemicals, mechanical engineering and biomedical science sectors.

Why should I buy a .sg domain name?
Singapore has astrong economy, and the influx of new business into the area provides an opportunity to capitalize on the needs of the emerging consumer and commercial cpr144449003101 markets. The .sg extension is ideal for companies based in the region to help present a professional image and show your commitment to the region to local customers.
What name can I register?

Restrictions. Domain names which:

12.1 contain certain words such as "Singapore", "Singapura", "Singapore Government" or "President" and variations thereof or any other words that might suggest a link to the Government:
12.2 contain "SGNJC", "NIC" and variations thereof:
12.3 are or contain words or references which are obscene, scandalous, indecent, contrary to law or morality:
12.4 are geographical names or names of countries (e.g. Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, etc.):
12.5 are names (either on their own or in combination with other characters) of existing generic top-level domain name (gTLDs) (i.e..com, .org..net cpr144449003101 .edu, .gov, .per, .aero, .coop, .biz, .info..museum, .name and .pro) and any other gTLDs created or to be created by ICANN in the future:
12.6 are names such as "www", "http", "https" or "http-www";
12.7 are similar or identical to domain names registered under other domain name space and which SGNIC deems undesirable:
12.8 are set out in the RPPG to be reserved names of .per.sg: or
12.9 in SGNIC's sole and absolute opinion.are undesirable or unsuitable for registration, shall not be registrable.

Discretion of SGNIC. Without prejudice to the provisions of Clause 12 above, SGNIC (on its own or through a Registrar) reserves the right not to register the domain name selected by the Applicant or to register that domain name selected by the Applicant. SGNIC is not obliged to provide the Applicant with any reason or ground for its refusal to register the domain name as applied for by the Applicant but upon the Applicant's request and in its absolute discretion, SGNIC may inform the Applicant of the reasons or grounds.

What is the registration term allowed for .sg domain names?
The minimum term for .sg cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .sg domain name?

YesAre Individual .sg domain registrations allowed?

YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .sg?

YesAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .sg?

Foreign applicants for domain names under this category must appoint a local agent having a valid Singapore postal address as their administrative contact. Please select Trustee Service at checkout if you do not have the local contact.

The local agent must provide SingPassID you can get here: https://www.singpass.gov.sg/sppubsvc/

IMPORTANT: SGNIC sends an email to the administrative contact and gives a grace period of 21 calendar days from the date of registration to verify their identity and contact information. SGNIC's policy is to suspend the domain name if the administrative contact does not perform the verification within 21 calendar days.

YesAre some .sg domain names restricted?

Violating rights to third parties, restricted names, names and activities which are contrary to law or morality are prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.

NoDoes .sg domain have a special use?

cpr144449003101

NoOther information I need to know about .sg?

NoAre there any additional fees for .sg?

NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .sg?

NoWHOIS Privacy service available?

Yes.sg Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?

How long does it take to register my .sg domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .sg during general availability is 1 Day. .sg is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until 1 Day. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .sg domain names?
Domain Names must:
  • have minimum of 3 and a maximum of 63 characters;
  • begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
  • use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
  • neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
  • not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.sg); and
  • not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.sg).
Trustee Service for .sg

Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.

cpr144449003101

Trustee Service Is Available for this extension

How do I host my .sg domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .sg. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
How do I transfer my .sg domain name?

To transfer your .sg domain name to bluesit.com, submit your domain name transfer or contact sales.

To transfer your .sg domain cpr144449003101 name out of bluesit.com, contact sales.

Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .sg requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .sg domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .sg domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?

Yes, You can register IDNs in the following languages

Grace period for .sg domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .sg domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .sg domain names?
You may visit them here: Singapore Network Information Centre Pte Ltd (SGNIC).cpr144449003101
.sg Domains Dispute & Policy

Last Update 20 August 2012. The most recent source for .sg domains dispute policy can be found at: www.sgnic.sg/sites/default/files/SDRPRules%201May2010%20(final).pdf

(Version 2 - 1 May 2010)

Rules for the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy

(the "Rules")

Administrative proceedings for the resolution of disputes under the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy shall be governed by these Rules and also by the Supplemental Rules for the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy issued jointly by the Singapore Mediation Centre and the Singapore International Arbitration Centre as the joint operators of the secretariat established to provide the administrative dispute resolution service under the Policy.

1. Definitions

In these Rules:

Complainant means the party initiating a complaint concerning a domain name registration.

Panel means an administrative panel appointed by the Provider to decide a complaint concerning a domain name registration.

Panellist means an individual appointed by the Provider to be a member of a Panel.

Party means a Complainant or a Respondent.

Policy means the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy that is incorporated by reference and made a part of the Registration Agreement.

Provider means the secretariat established and operated by the Singapore Mediation Centre and the Singapore International Arbitration Centre to provide the administrative dispute resolution service under the Policy.

Registration Agreement means the Domain Name Registration Agreement between SGNIC and the registrant or domain name holder of a ".sg" Internet domain name.

Respondent means the registrant or holder of a domain name registration against which a complaint is initiated.

Reverse Domain Name Hijacking means using the Policy in bad faith to attempt to deprive a registered domain name holder of a domain name.

SGNIC refers to Singapore Network information Centre (SGNIC) Private Limited.

Supplemental Rules means the Supplemental Rules for the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy issued jointly by the Singapore Mediation Centre and the Singapore International Arbitration Centre to supplement these Rules. The Supplemental Rules shall not be inconsistent with the Policy or these Rules and shall cover such topics as fees, word and page limits and guidelines, file size and format modalities, the means for communicating with the Provider and the Panel, and the form of cover sheets.

Working day means any day other than a Saturday, Sunday or public holiday.

Written Notice means the hardcopy notification by the Provider to the Respondent of the commencement of an administrative proceeding under the Policy, which shall inform the Respondent that a complaint has been filed against the Respondent, and which shall state that the Provider has electronically transmitted the complaint (including any annexes) to the Respondent by the means specified in Paragraph 2(a). The Written Notice does not include a hardcopy of the complaint itself or of any annexes to the complaint.

2. Communications

(a) When forwarding a complaint (including any annexes) electronically to the Respondent, it shall be the Provider's responsibility to employ reasonably available means calculated to achieve actual notice to Respondent. Achieving actual notice, or employing the following measures to do so, shall discharge this responsibility:
(i) sending Written Notice of the complaint to all postal and facsimile addresses:
(A) shown in the domain name's registration data in SGNIC's Online Whois database for the registered domain name holder, the technical contact and the administrative contact; and
(B) supplied by SGNIC to the Provider for the registration's billing contact;
(ii) sending the complaint (including any annexes) in electronic form by e-mail to:
(A) the e-mail addresses for those technical, administrative and billing contacts;
(B) postmaster@ ; and
(C) if the domain name (or "www." followed by the domain name) resolves to an active webpage (other than a generic page the Provider concludes is maintained by SGNIC, or by a Registrar or Registration Agent or an ISP for parking domain names registered by multiple domain name holders), any e-mail address shown or e-mail links on that web page; and
(iii) sending the complaint (including any annexes) to any e-mail address the Respondent has notified the Provider it prefers and, to the extent practicable, to all other e-mail addresses provided to the Provider by the Complainant under Paragraph 3(b)(v).
(b) Except as provided in Paragraph 2(a), any written communication to the Complainant or the Respondent provided for under these Rules shall be made electronically via the Internet (a record of its transmission being available), or by any reasonably requested preferred means stated by the Complainant or the Respondent, respectively (see Paragraphs 3(b)(iii) and 5(b)(iii)).
(c) Any communication to the Provider or the Panel shall be made by the means and in the manner (including, where applicable, the number of copies) stated in the Supplemental Rules.
(d) Communications shall be made in the English language.
(e) Either Party may update its contact details by notifying the Provider and SGNIC.
(f) Except as otherwise provided in these Rules, or decided by a Panel, all communications provided for under these Rules shall be deemed to have been made:
(i) if via the Internet, on the date that the communication was transmitted, provided that the date of transmission is verifiable;
(ii) where applicable, if delivered by facsimile transmission, on the date shown on the confirmation of transmission; or
(iii) where applicable, if by postal or courier service, on the date marked on the receipt.
(g) Except as otherwise provided in these Rules, all time periods calculated under these Rules to begin when a communication is made shall begin to run on the earliest date that the communication is deemed to have been made in accordance with Paragraph 2(f).
(h) Any communication by:
(i) a Panel to any Party shall be copied to the Provider and to the other Party;
(ii) the Provider to any Party shall be copied to the other Party; and
(iii) a Party shall be copied to the other Party, the Panel and the Provider, as the case may be.
(i) It shall be the responsibility of the sender to retain records of the fact and circumstances of sending, which shall be available for inspection by affected parties and for reporting purposes. This includes the Provider when sending Written Notice of the complaint to the Respondent by post and/or facsimile transmission under Paragraph 2(a)(i).
(j) In the event a Party sending a communication receives notification of non-delivery of the communication, the Party shall promptly notify the Panel (or if no Panel is yet appointed, the Provider) of the circumstances of notification. Further proceedings concerning the communication and any response shall be as directed by the Panel (or the Provider).

3. The Complaint

(a) Any person or entity may initiate an administrative proceeding by submitting a complaint in accordance with the Policy and these Rules to the Provider. The Complainant shall, at the same time, send or transmit to the Respondent in accordance with Paragraph 2(b) a copy each of the complaint (including any annexes) and the cover sheet as prescribed by the Supplemental Rules.
(b) The complaint (including any annexes) shall be submitted in electronic form and shall:
(i) Request that the complaint be submitted for decision in accordance with the Policy and these Rules;
(ii) Provide the name, postal and e-mail addresses, and the telephone and telefax numbers of the Complainant and of any representative authorized to act for the Complainant in the administrative proceeding;
(iii) Specify a preferred method for communications directed to the Complainant in the administrative proceeding (including person to be contacted, medium, and address information) for each of:
(A) electronic-only material; and
(B) material including hard copy (where applicable);
(iv) Designate whether the Complainant elects to have the dispute decided by a single-member or a three-member Panel and, in the event the Complainant elects a three-member Panel, provide the names of three candidates to serve as one of the Panellists (these candidates must be drawn from the Provider's list of panellists);
(v) Provide the name of the Respondent and all information (including any postal and e-mail addresses and telephone and telefax numbers) known to the Complainant regarding how to contact the Respondent or any representative of the Respondent, including contact information based on precomplaint dealings, in sufficient detail to allow the Provider to send the complaint as described in Paragraph 2(a);
(vi) Specify the domain name(s) that is/are the subject of the complaint;
(vii) Identify the Registrar(s) or Registration Agent(s), if any, through whom the domain name(s) is/are registered at the time the complaint is filed;
(viii) Specify the name(s), trademark(s) or service mark(s) on which the complaint is based and, for each name or mark, describe the goods or services, if any, with which the name or mark is used, and separately describe other goods and services with which it intends, at the time the complaint is submitted, to use the name or mark in the future;
(ix) Describe, in accordance with the Policy, the grounds on which the complaint is made including, in particular,
(1) the manner in which the domain name(s) is/are identical or confusingly similar to a name, trademark or service mark in which the Complainant has rights;
(2) why the Respondent should be considered as having no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the domain name(s) that is/are the subject of the complaint; and
(3) why the domain name(s) should be considered as having been registered or as being used in bad faith, such description to discuss, for elements (2) and (3), any aspects of Paragraphs 4(b) and 4(c) of the Policy that are applicable, and to comply with any word or page limit set forth in the Supplemental Rules;
(x) Specify, in accordance with the Policy, the remedies sought;
(xi) Identify any other legal proceedings that have been commenced or terminated in connection with or relating to the domain name(s) that are the subject of the complaint;
(xii) State that a copy of the complaint (including any annexes), together with the cover sheet as prescribed by the Supplemental Rules, has been sent or transmitted to the Respondent in accordance with Paragraph 2(b);
(xiii) State that the Complainant will submit, with respect to any challenges to a decision in the administrative proceeding cancelling or transferring the domain name, to the jurisdiction of the courts in Singapore;
(xiv) State whether the Complainant agrees to have the dispute mediated by the Panel before the Panel is called upon to decide the dispute;
(xv) State whether the Complainant consents to having the terms of any settlement that may be reached between the Parties, whether as a result of mediation by the Panel or otherwise, reflected in a decision of the Panel;
(xvi) State whether a Panel that mediates the dispute may proceed to decide the dispute if the Parties fail to reach an agreement after mediation;
(xvii) State whether the Complainant would still wish to have the dispute mediated by the Panel in the event that the Respondent does not agree to the same Panel deciding the dispute should the Parties fail to reach an agreement after mediation; and
(xviii) Conclude with the following statements followed by the signature of the Complainant or its authorized representative: "The Complainant agrees to abide and be bound by the provisions of the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, the Rules for the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy and the Supplemental Rules for the Singapore Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy." "The Complainant agrees that its claims and remedies concerning the registration of the domain name, the dispute, or the resolution of the dispute shall be solely against the domain name holder and waives all such claims and remedies against
(a) the Singapore Mediation Centre, the Singapore International Arbitration Centre, and the administrative dispute resolution service secretariat and their staff, except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing by their staff;
(b) a panellist, except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing by the panellist; and
(c) the Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Private Limited ("SGNIC"), as well as SGNIC's directors, officers, employees, and agents." "The Complainant certifies that the information contained in this Complaint is to the best of the Complainant's knowledge complete and accurate, that this Complaint is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass, and that the assertions in this Complaint are warranted under these Rules and under applicable law, as it now exists or as it may be extended by a good-faith and reasonable argument."
(c) The Complainant shall annex to the complaint any documentary or other evidence that the Complainant intends to rely upon, including a copy of the Policy applicable to the domain name(s) in dispute and any trademark or service mark registration upon which the complaint relies, together with a schedule indexing such evidence.
(d) The complaint may relate to more than one domain name, provided that the domain names are registered by the same domain name holder.

4. Notification of Complaint

(a) The Provider shall review the complaint for administrative compliance with the Policy and these Rules and, if the complaint is in compliance, shall forward electronically to the Respondent the complaint (including any annexes) (together with the explanatory cover sheet prescribed by the Supplemental Rules), and shall send to the Respondent Written Notice of the complaint (together with the explanatory cover sheet prescribed by the Supplemental Rules), in the manner prescribed by Paragraph 2(a), within three (3) working days after the date of receipt of the complaint or the date of receipt of the fees to be paid by the Complainant in accordance with Paragraph 19, whichever is later.
(b) If the Provider finds the complaint to be administratively deficient, it shall promptly notify the Complainant and the Respondent of the nature of the deficiencies identified. The Complainant shall correct any such deficiencies and resubmit the complaint within five (5) working days after the date cpr144449003101 of such notification. If the Complainant fails to resubmit the complaint within five (5) working days after the date of such notification, the administrative proceeding will be deemed withdrawn without prejudice to the submission of another complaint by the Complainant in respect of the same matter.
(c) The date of commencement of the administrative proceeding shall be the date on which the Provider completes its responsibilities under Paragraph 2(a) in connection with forwarding the complaint to the Respondent.
(d) The Provider shall immediately notify the Complainant, the Respondent and SGNIC of the date of commencement of the administrative proceeding.

5. The Response

(a) Within fifteen (15) working days after the date of commencement of the administrative proceeding, the Respondent shall submit a response to the Provider. The Respondent shall, at the same time, send or transmit a copy of the response (including any annexes) to the Complainant in accordance with Paragraph 2(b).
(b) The response (including any annexes) shall be submitted in electronic form and shall:
(i) Respond specifically to the statements and allegations contained in the complaint and include any and all bases for the Respondent to retain registration and use of the disputed domain name, such portion of the response to comply with any word or page limit set forth in the Supplemental Rules;
(ii) Provide the name, postal and e-mail addresses, and the telephone and telefax numbers of the Respondent and of any representative authorized to act for the Respondent in the administrative proceeding;
(iii) Specify a preferred method for communications directed to the Respondent in the administrative proceeding (including person to be contacted, medium, and address information) for each of:
(A) electronic-only material; and
(B) material including hard copy (where applicable);
(iv) If Complainant has elected a single-member panel in the Complaint (see Paragraph 3(b)(iv)), state whether the Respondent elects instead to have the dispute decided by a three-member panel;
(v) If either the Complainant or the Respondent elects a threemember Panel, provide the names of three candidates to serve as one of the Panellists (these candidates must be drawn from the Provider's list of panellists);
(vi) Identify any other legal proceedings that have been commenced or terminated in connection with or relating to the domain name(s) that are the subject of the complaint;
(vii) State that a copy of the response (including any annexes) has been sent or transmitted to the Complainant in accordance with Paragraph 2(b);
(viii) State whether the Respondent agrees to have the dispute mediated by the Panel before the Panel is called upon to decide the dispute;
(ix) State whether the Respondent consents to having the terms of any settlement that may be reached between the Parties, whether as a result of mediation by the Panel or otherwise, reflected in a decision of the Panel;
(x) State whether a Panel that mediates the dispute may proceed to decide the dispute if the Parties fail to reach an agreement after mediation; and
(xi) Conclude with the following statement followed by the signature of the Respondent or its authorized representative: "The Respondent certifies that the information contained in this Response is to the best of the Respondent's knowledge complete and accurate, that this Response is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass, and that the assertions in this Response are warranted under these Rules and under applicable law, as it now exists or as it may be extended by a good-faith and reasonable argument."
(c) The Respondent shall annex to the response any documentary or other evidence that the Respondent intends to rely upon, together with a schedule indexing such evidence.
(d) If the Complainant has elected to have the dispute decided by a single-member Panel and the Respondent elects a three-member Panel, the Respondent shall be required to pay one-half of the applicable fee for a three-member Panel as set out in the Supplemental Rules. This payment shall be made together with the submission of the response to the Provider. In the event that the required payment is not made, the dispute shall be decided by a single-member Panel.
(e) At the request of the Respondent, the Provider may, in exceptional cases, extend the period of time for the filing of the response. The period may also be extended by written stipulation between the Parties, provided the stipulation is approved by the Provider. (f) If the Respondent does not submit a response, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall decide the dispute based upon the complaint.

6. Appointment of the Panel and Timing of Decision

(a) The Provider shall maintain and publish a publicly available list of Panellists and their qualifications.
(b) If neither the Complainant nor the Respondent has elected a threemember Panel (Paragraphs 3(b)(iv) and 5(b)(iv)), the Provider shall appoint, within five (5) working days after the date of receipt of the response by the Provider or the lapse of the time period for the submission thereof (whichever is earlier), a single Panellist from its list of panellists. The fees of a single-member Panel shall be paid entirely by the Complainant.
(c) If either the Complainant or the Respondent elects to have the dispute decided by a three-member Panel, the Provider shall appoint three Panellists in accordance with the procedures identified in Paragraph 6(e). The fees for a three-member Panel shall be paid in their entirety by the Complainant, except where the election for a threemember Panel was made solely by the Respondent, in which case the applicable fees shall be borne by the Parties in equal shares.
(d) Unless it has already elected a three-member Panel, the Complainant shall submit to the Provider, within five (5) working days after the date of communication of a response in which the Respondent elects a three-member Panel, the names of three candidates to serve as one of the Panellists. These candidates must be drawn from the Provider's list of panellists.
(e) In the event that either the Complainant or the Respondent elects a three-member Panel, the Provider shall endeavour to appoint one Panellist from the list of candidates provided by each of the Complainant and the Respondent. In the event the Provider is unable within five (5) working days after receiving the lists of candidates of both Parties to secure the appointment of a Panellist from either Party's list of candidates, the Provider may appoint any other person from its list of panellists. The third Panellist shall be appointed by the Provider from a list of five candidates submitted by the Provider to the Parties, the Provider's selection from among the five being made in a manner that reasonably balances the preferences of both Parties, as they may specify to the Provider within five (5) working days after the Provider's submission of the five-candidate list to the Parties.
(f) Once the entire Panel is appointed, the Provider shall notify the Parties of the Panellists appointed and the date(s) by which, absent exceptional circumstances, the mediation (if any) shall be concluded and/or the Panel shall forward its decision on the complaint to the Provider.

7. Impartiality and Independence

A Panellist shall be impartial and independent and shall have, before accepting appointment, disclosed to the Provider any circumstances giving rise to justifiable doubt as to the Panellist's impartiality or independence. If, at any stage during the administrative proceeding, new circumstances arise that could give rise to justifiable doubt as to the impartiality or independence of the Panellist, that Panellist shall promptly disclose such circumstances to the Provider. In such event, the Provider shall have the discretion to appoint a substitute Panellist.

8. Communication Between Parties and the Panel

(a) Except as provided for in Paragraph 8(b), no Party or anyone acting on its behalf may have any unilateral communication with the Panel.
(b) Where both the Complainant and the Registrant agree to have the dispute mediated by the Panel, the Panel may, during the course of the mediation, communicate confidentially with each Party to the exclusion of the other Party. Such confidential communications between the Panel and each Party shall cease once the mediation has ended.
(c) All communications between a Party and the Panel or the Provider shall be made to the Provider in the manner prescribed in the Supplemental Rules.

9. Transmission of the File to the Panel

The Provider shall forward the file to the Panel as soon as the Panellist is appointed in the case of a Panel consisting of a single member, or as soon as the last Panellist is appointed in the case of a three-member Panel.

10. General Powers of the Panel

(a) The Panel shall conduct the administrative proceeding in such manner as it considers appropriate in accordance with the Policy and these Rules.
(b) In all cases, the Panel shall ensure that the Parties are treated with equality and that each Party is given a fair opportunity to present its case.
(c) The Panel shall ensure that the administrative proceeding takes place with due expedition. It may, at the request of a Party or on its own motion, extend, in exceptional cases, a period of time fixed by these Rules or by the Panel.
(d) The Panel shall determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence.
(e) The Panel shall not mediate the dispute unless the Parties agree to have the dispute mediated before the Panel is called upon to decide the dispute.
(f) Subject to Paragraph 10(c), where the Parties agree to have the dispute mediated by the Panel, the Panel shall ensure that the mediation is concluded within fifteen (15) working days after the date of its appointment pursuant to Paragraph 6.

11. Language of Proceedings

(a) The language of the administrative proceeding shall be the English language.
(b) Any document to be submitted to the Panel that is in a language other than the English language must, unless otherwise agreed by the Parties, be accompanied by a translation of the whole document into the English language.

12. Further Statements

In addition to the complaint and the response, the Panel may request, in its sole discretion, further statements or documents from either of the Parties.

13. In-Person Hearings

There shall be no in-person hearings (including hearings by teleconference, videoconference, and web conference), unless the Panel determines, in its sole discretion and as an exceptional matter, that such a hearing is necessary for mediating the dispute or deciding the complaint.

14. Default

(a) In the event that a Party, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, does not comply with any of the time periods established by these Rules or the Panel, the Panel shall proceed to a decision on the complaint.
(b) If a Party, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, does not comply with any provision of, or requirement under, these Rules or any request from the Panel, the Panel shall draw such inferences therefrom as it considers appropriate.

15. Panel Decisions

(a) A Panel shall decide a complaint on the basis of the statements and documents submitted and in accordance with the Policy, these Rules and any rules and principles of the law of Singapore that it deems applicable.
(b) Where the Parties agree to have the dispute mediated by a Panel and the Parties fail to reach a settlement through the mediation, if the Parties further agree that the Panel that mediated the dispute may continue with the administrative proceeding and decide the complaint, then, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall forward its decision on the complaint to the Provider within ten (10) working days after the date of termination of the mediation. Where the Parties do not agree to have the dispute mediated by the Panel, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall forward its decision on the complaint to the Provider within ten (10) working days after the date of its appointment pursuant to Paragraph 6.
(c) In the case of a three-member Panel, the Panel's decision shall be made by a majority.
(d) The Panel's decision shall be in writing, provide the reasons on which it is based, indicate the date on which it was rendered and state the name(s) of the Panellist(s).
(e) Panel decisions and dissenting opinions shall normally comply with the guidelines as to length set out in the Supplemental Rules. Any dissenting opinion shall accompany the majority decision. If the Panel concludes that the dispute is not within the scope of Paragraph 4(a) of the Policy, it shall so state. If, after considering the submissions, the Panel finds that the complaint was brought in bad faith, for example, in an attempt at Reverse Domain Name Hijacking, or was brought primarily to harass the domain name holder, the Panel shall declare in its decision that the complaint was brought in bad faith and constitutes an abuse of the administrative proceeding.

16. Communication of Decision to Parties

(a) Within three (3) working days after receiving the decision from the Panel, the Provider shall communicate the full text of the decision to each Party, the Registrar(s) or Registration Agent(s), if any, through whom the domain name(s) is/are registered, and SGNIC. The Provider shall also communicate to each Party, and the Registrar(s) or Registration Agent(s), if any, through whom the domain name(s) was/were registered, the date for the implementation of the decision in accordance with the Policy.
(b) Except if the Panel determines otherwise (see Paragraph 4(j) of the Policy), the Provider shall publish the full decision on a publicly accessible website. In any event, the portion of any decision determining a complaint to have been brought in bad faith (see Paragraph 15(e) of these Rules) shall be published.

17. Settlement or Other Grounds for Termination

(a) If, before the Panel's decision is made, the Parties agree on a settlement, and the Parties further consent to having the terms of the settlement reflected in a decision of the Panel, the Panel shall render a decision that is consistent with the terms of the settlement and state that the decision is made pursuant to a settlement between the Parties. If, before the Panel's decision is made, the Parties agree on a settlement, but any Party does not consent to having the terms of the settlement reflected in a decision of the Panel, the Panel (or, if the Panel has not been appointed yet, the Provider) shall terminate the administrative proceeding, such termination to be without prejudice to the initiation of another administrative proceeding in respect of the same matter.
(b) Where the Parties agree to have the dispute mediated by a Panel and the Parties fail to reach a settlement through the mediation, if the Parties do not agree that the dispute may be decided by the Panel that mediated the dispute, the Panel shall terminate the administrative proceeding, such termination to be without prejudice to the initiation of another administrative proceeding by the Complainant in respect of the same matter, with a request that the Provider appoint a different Panel to decide the dispute.
(c) If, before the Panel's decision is made, it becomes unnecessary or impossible to continue the administrative proceeding for any reason, the Panel (or, if the Panel has not been appointed yet, the Provider) shall terminate the administrative proceeding, unless a Party raises justifiable grounds for objection within a period of time to be determined by the Panel (or the Provider, as the case may be).

18. Effect of Court Proceedings

(a) If legal proceedings are initiated in respect of a domain name dispute before an administrative proceeding is commenced in respect of the same dispute, the Panel conducting the administrative proceeding shall have the discretion to decide whether to suspend or terminate the administrative proceeding, or to proceed to a decision.
(b) Neither Party shall initiate any legal proceedings in respect of a domain name dispute that is the subject of a pending administrative proceeding.

19. Fees

(a) The Complainant shall pay to the Provider an initial fixed fee, in accordance with the Supplemental Rules, within the time and in the amount required. A Respondent electing under Paragraph 5(b)(iv) to have the dispute decided by a three-member Panel, rather than the single-member Panel elected by the Complainant, shall pay the Provider one-half of the fixed fee for a three-member Panel. See Paragraph 5(d). In all other cases, the Complainant shall bear all of the Provider's fees, except as prescribed under Paragraph 19(d). Upon appointment of the Panel, the Provider shall refund the appropriate portion, if any, of the initial fee to the Complainant, as specified in the Supplemental Rules.
(b) No action shall be taken by the Provider on a complaint until it has received from the Complainant the initial fee in accordance with Paragraph 19(a).
(c) If the Provider has not received the fee within ten (10) working days after the date the complaint is received, the complaint shall be deemed withdrawn and the administrative proceeding terminated.
(d) In exceptional circumstances, for example in the event an in-person hearing is held, the Provider shall request that the Parties pay additional fees, which shall be established in agreement with the Parties and the Panel.

20. Exclusion of Liability

(a) The Singapore Mediation Centre, the Singapore International Arbitration Centre and the Provider shall not be liable to any Party for any act or omission of a Panellist in connection with any administrative proceeding under these Rules.
(b) Except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing, the Singapore Mediation Centre, the Singapore International Arbitration Centre and the Provider shall not be liable to any Party for any act or omission of their staff in connection with any administrative proceeding under these Rules.
(c) Except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing, a Panellist shall not be liable to any Party for any act or omission by him in connection with any administrative proceeding under these Rules.

21. Amendments

The version of these Rules in effect at the time of the submission of the complaint to the Provider shall apply to the administrative proceeding commenced thereby. These Rules may be amended from time to time by SGNIC.
.sg Glossary of Technical Terms

.INT
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.

A record
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.

AAAA record
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.

Administrative contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.

A-label
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.

ARPA
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.

Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each Singaporean .sg domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.

Automatic Renewal
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.

Billing Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.

Caching Resolver
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.

Cloaking Forwarding
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.

CNAME Record
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.

Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.

Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.

Delegation
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.

Deletion
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.

DNS zone
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.

DNSSEC
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.

Domain lock
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.

Domain Name
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "208.77.188.103", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.

Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.

Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.

Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.

Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.sg”.

Expiration date
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.

Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.

Extension
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.

First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.

FTP
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.

Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".

GAC Principles
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.

General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.

Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).

Glue Record
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".

Hints File
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.

Hostname
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.

Http
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.

IANA
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

IANA Considerations
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.

IANA Contract
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.

IANA Staff
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

ICANN
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.

Internal transfer
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.

Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".

Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.

Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.

Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.

Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.

IP address
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.

IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.

IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.

Landrush Phase
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.

Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.

New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.

NS record
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.

Parent domain
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.

Parking
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.

Pre-Registration
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.

Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.

PTR record
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.

Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.

Redelegation
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.

Redelegation process
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.

Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.

Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.

Registrant
See Registrant Contact

Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.

Registrar for .sg
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.

Registry Singapore .sg
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.

Registry Operator for .sg Singapore
The entity that runs a registry.

Reverse IP
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.

RFCs
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.

Root
The highest level of the domain system.

Root Servers
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.

Root Zone
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.

Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.

RZM Automation
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".

Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.

Sponsoring organization
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.

Subdomain
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.

Sunrise Phase
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.

Technical Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.

Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.

Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".sg" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.

Transfer
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.

Trust anchor
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.

Trustee
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.

U-label
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.

Unicode
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.

Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)

Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.

URL Forwarding
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.

UTF-8
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.

Variant
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.

Variant bundle
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.

Variant table
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.

Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.

WHOIS
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")

WHOIS database
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.

WHOIS gateway
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.

WHOIS server
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.

Wire format
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.

XML
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.

Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.

Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).

Trademark Claims
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.