.us Domain Registration
- 1 Year 3.99 USD 10.45 USD
- 2 Years 20.48 USD
- 3 Years 30.41 USD
- 4 Years 40.13 USD
- 5 Years 49.64 USD
- 6 Years 58.94 USD
- 7 Years 68.03 USD
- 8 Years 76.91 USD
- 9 Years 85.59 USD
- 10 Years 94.05 USD
Registration Time Frame
Yes Details Are Individual .us domain registrations allowed?
Yes Details Company or legal entities registrations allowed for .us?
Yes Details Are there requirements, documents, or information needed for .us?
Yes Details Are some .us domain names restricted?
No Details Does .us domain have a special use?
Yes Details Other information I need to know about .us?
No Details Are there any additional fees for .us?
No Details Do I need a trademark/brand name to register .us?
No Details WHOIS Privacy service available?
Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees? No Details
.us Domain FAQ
.us General FAQ
.US is the Internet country top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United States of America. Located in North America, The United States borders both the Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean, between Canada cpr144449003101 and Mexico. The U.S. domain name registry is operated by Neustar. All US domains are registered through them. The United States Department of Commerce oversees the management of the U.S. domain registry.
Why should I buy a .us domain name?
The United States is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations. The U.S. economy is the largest national economy in the world. Having a.us domain gives citizens, businesses, organizations and cpr144449003101 government agencies unique and memorable American identities online. The .us enables domestic and international firms of every size and industry to protect their trademarks and establish corporate identities online in the United States.
What name can I register?
The Registrant represents and certifies that, to the best of the Registrant's knowledge and belief, (i) neither the registration of the Registered Name nor the manner in which it is directly or indirectly used infringes the legal rights of any third party (ii) theRegistrant has the requisite power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to perform theobligations hereunder (iii) Registrant has and shall continue to have a lawful bona fide U.S. Nexusas defined in Section 8 of this Agreement and qualifies to register to use a Registered Name (iv)Registrant is of legal age to enter into this Agreement; and (v) Registrant agrees to comply with allapplicable laws, regulations and policies of the usTLD Administrator as updated from time to timeon the usTLD website.
Registrant hereby certifies that all data provided by Registrant in the domain name registration application is true, correct, up to date and complete. Registrant will maintain and update, by providing notice to usTLD Administrator pursuant to this Agreement, the information contained in the domain name registration application as needed to keep such data true, correct, up to date and complete at all times.
Today any U.S. Citizen or permanent resident, as well as any business or organization, including federal, state and local government with a ‘bona fide' presence in the United States can register a .us domain name.
The .us applicant undertakes that the selected domain name does not violate another individual's or organization's rights. The individual or organization who applies for a domain name undertakes to obey the laws of the United States for the tasks performed within the domain name applied for.
In order to register a .us domain name one of the following eligibility requirements needs to be met:
- "Any entity or organization that is incorporated within one of the fifty (50) U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or any of the United States possessions or territories or (ii) organized or otherwise constituted under the laws of a state of the United States of America, the District of Columbia, or any of its possessions or territories."
- "An entity or organization (including federal, state, or local government of the United States, or a political subdivision thereof) that has a bona fide presence in the United States. See Section B.3.1 of the NeuStar proposal to the Department of Commerce for details concerning what constitutes a 'bona fide presence'."
- "A natural person (i) who is a citizen or permanent resident of the United States of America or any of its possessions or territories or (ii) whose primary place of domicile is in the United States of America or any of its possessions, or"
In order to register a ".us" domain the following information will have to be provided. (Please note that this is the minimum required information and additional information might have to be added in certain cases):
- The preferred domain name;
- The name and postal address of the domain name Registrant;
- The name, postal address, e-mail address, voice telephone number, and (where available) fax number of the name holder and technical contact for the name registered;
- The IP address and corresponding names of the name servers for the registered name (both primary and secondary);
- The Registrar name and URL or, where appropriate, the identity of the delegated manager under whom the name is registered;
- The creation date and cpr144449003101 term of the registration;
Nexus Category 1
A natural person (i) who is a United States citizen, (ii) who is a permanent resident of the United States of America or any of its possessions or territories, or (iii) whose primary place of domicile is in the United States of America or any of its possessions.
- Statement of citizenship or legal permanent residency required. If not completed, registration will be rejected.
Nexus Category 2
A United States entity or organization that is (i) incorporated within one of the fifty (50) U.S. states, the District of Columbia, or any of the United States possessions or territories, or (ii) organized or otherwise constituted under the laws of a state of the United States of America, the District of Columbia or any of its possessions or (including a federal, state, or local government of the United States, or a political subdivision thereof, and non-commercial organizations based in the United States).
Nexus Category 3
A foreign entity or organization that has a bona fide presence in the United States of America or any of its possessions or territories.
- Applicant must state country of citizenship.
- Applicant must also (1) regularly engage in lawful activities (sales of goods or services or other business, commercial or non-commercial including not-for-profit activities) in the United States; or (2) maintain an office or other property within the United States.
Population is estimated to be 305,492,000 people
Gross Domestic Product is $13.794 trillion US Dollars
Languages recognized in the USA are English
What is the registration term allowed for .us domain names?
The minimum term for .us cpr144449003101 domain names is 1 year(s).
Can anyone register a .us domain name?
YesAre Individual .us domain registrations allowed?
YesCompany or legal entities registrations allowed for .us?
YesAre there requirements, documents, or information needed for .us?A citizen or business entity should provide valid contact information in the United States or it's territories. Foreign entities maintaining an office in the U.S may apply, country of citizenship is required. Domains may not resemble telephone numbers or ZIP codes.
YesAre some .us domain names restricted?Violating rights to third parties, names and activities against the laws of the United States and the usTLD Administrator is prohibited. See FAQs for complete restrictions.
NoDoes .us domain have a special use?
YesOther information I need cpr144449003101 to know about .us?Nameservers must be physically located in the U.S. Transfers to third parties is prohibited without express consent of the registry.
NoAre there any additional fees for .us?
NoDo I need a trademark/brand name to register .us?
NoWHOIS Privacy service available?
Yes.us Trustee / Proxy service offered? Fees?
How long does it take to register my .us domain name?
The domain registration time frame for .us during general availability is Instant. .us is not cpr144449003101 expected to launch until Instant. Once launched, a registration time frame will be available.
What are the characters and valid character lengths for .us domain names?
Domain Names must:
- have minimum of 3 and a maximum of 63 characters;
- begin with a letter or a number and end with a letter or a number;
- use the English character set and may contain letters (i.e., a-z, A-Z),numbers (i.e. 0-9) and dashes (-) or a combination of these;
- neither begin with, nor cpr144449003101 end with a dash;
- not contain a dash in the third and fourth positions (e.g. www.ab- -cd.us); and
- not include a space (e.g. www.ab cd.us).
Trustee Service for .us
Trustee Service helps you satisfy most local presence requirements when there are restrictions on registering a domain name.cpr144449003101
Trustee service is not available for this extension
How do I host my .us domain name?
bluesit.com offers hosting and email service for .us. You can order hosting, email service and SSL certificates at checkout or you can contact sales.cpr144449003101
- How do I transfer my .us domain name?
Can I transfer out my domain if I’m using your Trustee Service?
Trustee service is non-transferable. If you are using our Trustee Service, you cpr144449003101 must update ownership according to .us requirements before transfer out can be started.
Can I hide my registration information (Private WHOIS)?
No. At present the .us domain zone does not provide means to hide the information cpr144449003101 of the domain owner. All information (name, address, email, etc.) will be displayed in WHOIS.
Can I register my .us domain name in different languages (Internationalized Domain Name)?
No, .us does not cpr144449003101 support Internationalized Domain Names
Grace period for .us domain name?
Grace periods vary for country code Top Level Domains (ccTLD) including Internationalized Domain Names (IDN). Some registries require renewal up to 60 days in advance of the domain name expiration date. It is your responsibility to pay for your Renewal Fees in advance of the due date specified by 101domain regardless of the domain name expiration date. Failure to pay your Renewal Fees prior to the cpr144449003101 due date will result in a fee of $150 to renew your .us domain. There may be a restore period between when the domain expires and when the domain can be registered again. In the event that you do not pay by the renewal date, your site may be inaccessible during this time so it is very important that you renew this extension before the renewal date.
Who is the registry that manages .us domain names?
The US domain name registry is operated by Neustar. All US domain names are registered through them. The United States Department of Commerce oversees the management of .us domain registry.
You may visit them here: Neustar.cpr144449003101
.us Domains Dispute & Policy
Last Update 20 August 2012. The most recent source for .us domains dispute policy can be found at: www.neustar.us/ustld-dispute-resolution-policy/
usTLD Dispute Resolution Policy
(Approved by the U. S. Dept. of Commerce on February 21, 2002)1.Purpose-This usTLD Dispute Resolution Policy (the "Policy") has been adopted by the United States Department of Commerce ("DOC"). It is incorporated by reference into the usTLD Registration Agreement, and sets forth the terms and conditions in connection with a dispute between you (as the registrant) and any party other than us (as the registrar) or the registry administrator for the usTLD (as the "Registry") over the registration and use of an Internet domain name registered by you. Proceedings under Paragraph 4 of this Policy will be conducted according to the Rules for the usTLD Dispute Resolution Policy (the "Rules"), which are attached hereto, and the selected administrative-dispute-resolution service provider's supplemental rules.2.Your Representations -By applying to register a domain name, registering a domain name, or by asking us to maintain or renew a domain name registration, you hereby represent and warrant to us that (a) the statements that you made in your usTLD Registration Agreement are complete and accurate; (b) to your knowledge, the registration of the domain name will not infringe upon or otherwise violate the rights of any third party; (c) you are not registering the domain name for an unlawful purpose; and (d) you will not knowingly use the domain name in violation of any applicable laws or regulations. It is your responsibility to determine whether your domain name registration infringes or violates someone else's rights.3.Cancellations, Transfers, and Changes-We will cancel, transfer or otherwise make changes to a domain name registration that is subject to this Policy under the following circumstances:a.Subject to the provisions of Paragraph 8, our receipt of written or appropriate electronic instructions from you or your authorized agent to take such action;b.Our receipt of an order from a court or arbitral tribunal, in each case of competent jurisdiction in the United States, requiring such action; and/orc.Our receipt of a decision of an Administrative Panel requiring such action in any administrative proceeding to which you were a party and which was conducted under this Policy or a later version of this Policy adopted by the DOC.We may also cancel, transfer or otherwise make changes to a domain name registration in accordance with the terms of your usTLD Registration Agreement or other legal requirements.4.Mandatory Administrative Proceeding-This Paragraph sets forth the type of disputes for which you are required to submit to a mandatory administrative proceeding. These proceedings will be conducted before one of the administrative-dispute-resolution service providers listed at http://www.neustar.us/policies/dispute_providers.html (each, a"Provider").a.Applicable Disputes-You are required to submit to a mandatory administrative proceeding in the event that a third party (a "Complainant") asserts to the applicable Provider, in compliance with the Rules, that:i.Your domain name is identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the Complainant has rights;ii.You have no rights or legitimate interests in respect of the domain name; andiii.Your domain name has been registered in bad faith or is being used in bad faith.
In the administrative proceeding, the Complainant must prove that each of these three elements is present.b.Evidence of Registration or Use in Bad Faith-For the purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(1)(iii), the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by the Panel to be present, shall be evidence of the registration or use of a domain name in bad faith:i.Circumstances indicating that you have registered or you have acquired the domain name primarily for the purpose of selling, renting, or otherwise transferring the domain name registration to the Complainant who is the owner of the trademark or service mark or to a competitor of that Complainant, for valuable consideration in excess of your documented out-of-pocket costs directly related to the domain name;ii.You have registered the domain name in order to prevent the owner of the trademark or service mark from reflecting the mark in a corresponding domain name;iii.You ha ve registered the domain name primarily for the purpose of disrupting the business of a competitor; oriv. By using the domain name, you have intentionally attempted to attract, for commercial gain, Internet users to your web site or other on- line location, by creating a likelihood of confusion with the Complainant's mark as to the source, sponsorship, affiliation, or endorsement of your web site or location or of a product or service on your web site or location.
Name in Responding to a Complaint-When you receive a complaint, you should refer to the Rules in determining how your response should be prepared. Any of the following circumstances, in particular but without limitation, if found by the Panel to be proved based on its evaluation of all evidence presented, shall demonstrate your rights or legitimate interests to the domain name for purposes of Paragraph 4(a)(ii):i.You are the owner or beneficiary of a trade or service mark that is identical to the domain name;ii.Before any notice to you of the dispute, your use of, or demonstrable preparations to use, the domain name or a name corresponding to the domain name in connection with a bona fide offering of goods or services;iii.You (as an individual, business, or other organization) have been commonly known by the domain name, even if you have acquired no trademark or service mark rights; oriv. You are making a legitimate noncommercial or fair use of the domain name, without intent for commercial gain to misleadingly divert consumers or to tarnish the trademark or service mark at issue.d.Selection of Provider-The Complainant shall select the Provider from among those approved by DOC by submitting the complaint to that Provider. The selected Provider will administer the proceeding, except in cases of consolidation as described in Paragraph 4(f).e.Initiation of Proceeding and Process and Appointment of Administrative Panel-The Rules state the process for initiating and conducting a proceeding and for appointing the panel that will decide the dispute (the "Administrative Panel").f.Consolidation-In the event of multiple disputes between you and a Complainant, either you or the Complainant may petition to consolidate the disputes before a single Administrative Panel. This petition shall be made to the first Administrative Panel appointed to hear a pending dispute between the parties. This Administrative Panel may consolidate before it any or all such disputes in its sole discretion, provided that the disputes being consolidated are governed by this Policy or a later version of this Policy adopted by DOC.g.Fees-All fees charged by a Provider in connection with any dispute before an Administrative Panel pursuant to this Policy shall be paid by the Complainant, except in cases where you elect to expand the Administrative Panel from one to fees will be split evenly by you and the Complainant.h.Our Involvement in Administrative Proceedings -We do not, and will not, participate in the administration or conduct of any proceeding before an Administrative Panel. In addition, we will not be liable as a result of any decisions rendered by the Administrative Panel.i.Remedies-The remedies available to a Complainant pursuant to any proceeding before an Administrative Panel shall be limited to requiring the cancellation of your domain name or the transfer of your domain name registration to the Complainant.j.Notification and Publication-The Provider shall notify us of any decision made by an Administrative Panel with respect to a domain name you have registered with us. All decisions under this Policy will be published in full over the Internet, except when an Administrative Panel determines in an exceptional case to redact portions of its decision.k.Availability of Court Proceedings-The mandatory administrative proceeding requirements set forth in Paragraph 4 shall not prevent either you or the Complainant from submitting the dispute to a court of competent jurisdiction in the United States for independent resolution before such mandatory administrative proceeding is commenced or after such proceeding is concluded. If an Administrative Panel decides that your domain name registration should be canceled or transferred, we will wait ten (10) business days (as observed in the location of our principal office) after we are informed by the applicable Provider of the Administrative Panel's decision before implementing that decision. We will then implement the decision unless we have received from you during that ten (10) business day period official documentation (such as a copy of a complaint, file-stamped by the clerk of the court) that you have commenced a lawsuit against the Complainant in a jurisdiction to which the Complainant has submitted under Paragraph 3 of the Rules. (In general, that jurisdiction is either the location of our principal office or of your address as shown in our Whois database. If we receive such documentation within the ten (10) business day period, we will not implement the Administrative Panel's decision, and we will take no further action, until we receive (i) evidence satisfactory to us of a resolution between the parties; (ii) evidence satisfactory to us that your lawsuit has been dismissed or withdrawn; or (iii) a copy of an order from such court dismissing your lawsuit or ordering that you do not have the right to continue to use your domain name.5.All Other Disputes and Litigation-All other disputes between you and any party other than us regarding your domain name registration that are not brought pursuant to the mandatory administrative proceeding provisions of Paragraph 4 shall be resolved between you and such other party through any court, arbitration or other proceeding thatmay be available.6.Our Involvement in Disputes-We will not participate in any way in any dispute between you and any party other than us regarding the registration and use of your domain name. You shall not name us as a party or othe rwise include us in any such proceeding. In the event that we are named as a party in any such proceeding, we reserve the right to raise any and all defenses deemed appropriate, and to take any other action necessary to defend ourselves.7.Maintaining the Status Quo-We will not cancel, transfer, activate, deactivate, or otherwise change the status of any domain name registration under this Policy except as provided in Paragraph 3 above.8.Transfers During a Disputea.Transfers of a Domain Name to a New Holder-You may not transfer your domain name registration to another holder (i) during a pending administrative proceeding brought pursuant to Paragraph 4 or for a period of fifteen (15) business days (as observed in the location of our principal place of business) after such proceeding is concluded; or (ii) during a pending court proceeding or arbitration commenced regarding your domain name unless the party to whom the domain name registration is being transferred agrees, in writing, to be bound by the decision of the court or arbitrator. We reserve the right to cancel any transfer of a domain name registration to another holder that is made in violation of this subparagraph.b.Changing Registrars -You may not transfer your domain name registration to another registrar during a pending administrative proceeding brought pursuant to Paragraph 4 or for a period of fifteen (15) business days (as observed in the location of our principal place of business) after such proceeding is concluded. You may transfer administration of your domain name registration to another registrar during a pending court action or arbitration, provided that the domain name you have registered with us shall continue to be subject to the proceedings commenced against you in accordance with the terms of this Policy. In the event that you transfer a domain name registration to us during the pendency of a court action or arbitration, such dispute shall remain subject to the domain name dispute policy of the registrar from which the domain name registration was transferred.9.Policy Modifications -We reserve the right to modify this Policy at any time with the permission of DOC. We will post our revised Policy at
at least thirty (30) calendar days before it becomes effective. Unless this Policy has already been invoked by the submission of a complaint to a Provider, in which event the version of the Policy in effect at the time it was invoked will apply to you until the dispute is over, all such changes will be binding upon you with respect to any domain name registration dispute, whether the dispute arose before, on or after the effective date of the change. In the event that you object to a change in this Policy, your sole remedy is to cancel your domain name registration with us, provided that you will not be entitled to a refund of any fees you paid to us. The revised Policy will apply to you until you cancel your domain name registration.
Rules for the usTLD
Dispute Resolution Policy
Administrative proceedings for the resolution of disputes under the usTLD Dispute Resolution Policy adopted by DOC shall be governed by these Rules and also the Supplemental Rules of the Provider administering the proceedings, as posted on its web site.
In these Rules:Complainant means the party initiating a complaint concerning a domain name registration.
DOC refers to the United States Department of Commerce.
Mutual Jurisdiction means a court jurisdiction in the United States at the location of either (a) the principal office of the Registrar of the domain name in question, or (b) the domain name holder's address as shown for the registration of the domain name in Registrar's Whois database at the time a complaint is submitted to a Provider. If neither (a) or (b) are located within the United States, then Mutual Jurisdiction shall lie in solely in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Panel means an administrative panel appointed by a Provider to decide a complaint concerning a domain name registration.
Panelist means an individual appointed by a Provider to be a member of a Panel.
Party means a Complainant or a Respondent.
Policy means the usTLD Dispute Resolution Policy that is incorporated by reference and made a part of the Registration Agreement.
Provider means a dispute-resolution service provider approved by DOC. A list of such Providers appears at http://www.neustar.us/policies/dispute_providers.html.
Registrar means the entity with which the Respondent has registered a domain name that is the subject of a complaint.
Registration Agreement means the agreement between a Registrar and a domain name holder.
Respondent means the holder of a domain name registration against which a complaint is initiated.
Reverse Domain Name Hijacking means using the Policy in bad faith to attempt to deprive a registered domain name holder of a domain name.
Supplemental Rules means the rules adopted by the Provider administering a proceeding to supplement these Rules. Supplemental Rules shall not be inconsistent with the Policy or these Rules and shall cover such topics as fees, word and page limits and guidelines, the means for communicating with the Provider and the Panel, and the form of cover sheets.
2. Communicationsa. Any written communication required under these Rules shall be made by the means specified by the Complainant or the Respondent, respectively, or in the absence of such specification:i. By facsimile with a confirmation of transmission;ii. By postal or courier service, postage pre-paid and return receipt requested; and/or iii. Electronically via the Internet, provided a record of its transmission is available.b. Any communication to the Provider or the Panel shall be made in accordance with the Provider's Supplemental Rules.c. All communications shall be made in the language prescribed in Paragraph 11.d. Either Party may update its contact details by notifying the other Party, the Provider and the Registrar.e. Except as otherwise provided in these Rules, or decided by a Panel, all communications provided for under these Rules shall be deemed to have been made:i. If delivered by facsimile transmission, on the date shown on the confirmation of transmission;ii. If by postal or courier service, on the date marked on the receipt; oriii. If via the Internet, on the date that the communication was transmitted, provided that the date of transmission is verifiable.f. Except as otherwise provided in these Rules, all time periods calculated under these Rules shall begin to run on the earliest date that the communication is deemed to have been made in accordance with Paragraph 2(e).g. Except as otherwise provided in these Rules, any communication by:i. A Panel to any Party shall be copied to the Provider and to the other Party;ii. The Provider, following the commencement of an administrative proceeding pursuant to Paragraph 4(c), to any Party shall be copied to the other Party; andiii. A Party shall be copied to the other Party, the Panel and the Provider, as the case may be.h. It shall be the responsibility of the sender to retain records of the fact and circumstances of sending, which shall be available for inspection by affected parties and for reporting purposes.i. In the event that a Party sending a communication receives notification of non-delivery of the communication, that Party shall promptly notify the Provider of the circumstances of the notification.
3. The Complainta. Any person or entity may initiate an administrative proceeding by submitting a complaint in accordance with the Policy and these Rules to any Provider approved by DOC. (Due to capacity constraints or for other reasons, a Provider's ability to accept complaints may be suspended at times. In that event, the Provider shall refuse the submission. The person or entity may submit the complaint to another Provider.)b. The complaint shall be submitted in hard copy (with annexes) and in electronic form (without annexes).c. The complaint shall:i. Request that the complaint be submitted for decision in accordance with the Policy and Rules and describe why the domain name registration should be considered subject to the Policy;ii. Provide the full name, postal and e- mail addresses, and the telephone and telefax numbers of the Complainant and of any representative authorized to act for the Complainant in the administrative proceeding;iii. Specify a preferred method for communications directed to the Complainant in the administrative proceeding (including person to be contacted, medium, and address information) for each of (A) electronic-only material and (B) material including hard copy;iv. Designate whether Complainant elects to have the dispute decided by a single- member or a three- member Panel and, in the event Complainant elects a three- member Panel, provide the names and contact details of three candidates to serve as Provider's list of panelists);v. Provide the full name of the Respondent and, if different from the contact details available in the Whois database for the domain name, provide all information known to the Complainant regarding how to contact Respondent or any representative of Respondent, including contact information based on pre-complaint dealings;vi. Specify the domain name(s) that is/are the subject of the complaint;vii. Identify the Registrar(s) with whom the domain name(s) is/are registered at the time the complaint is filed; viii. Specify the trademark(s) or service mark(s) on which the complaint is based and, for each mark, describe the goods or services, if any, with which the mark is used (the Complainant may also separately describe other goods and;ix. Describe, in accordance with the Policy, the grounds on which the complaint is made including,(1) The extent to which the domain name(s) is/are identical or confusingly similar to a trademark or service mark in which the Complainant has rights;(2) Why the Respondent (domain name holder) should be considered as having no rights or cpr144449003101 legitimate interests in respect of the domain name(s) that is/are the subject of the complaint; and(3) Why the domain name(s) should be considered as having been registered or used in bad faith. (The description should, for elements (2) and (3), discuss any aspects of Paragraphs 4(b) and 4(c) of the Policy that are applicable. The description shall comply with any word or page limit set forth in the Provider's Supplemental Rules.);x. Specify, in accordance with the Policy, the remedies sought;xi. Identify any other legal proceedings that have been commenced or terminated in connection with or relating to any of the domain name(s) that are the subject of the complaint;xii. State that a copy of the complaint, together with the cover sheet as prescribed by the Provider's Supplemental Rules, has been sent or transmitted to the Respondent (domain name holder), in accordance with Paragraph 2(b);xiii. Identify the Mutual Jurisdiction to which the Complainant(s) will submit, with respect to any challenges to a decision in the administrative proceeding to transfer the domain name as follows: "The Complainant hereby designates [identify precisely the court jurisdiction] as the Mutual Jurisdiction, for the purposes of challenges to a decision in the administrative proceeding to cancel or transfer the domain name."xiv. Conclude with the following statement followed by the signature of the Complainant or its authorized representative:
"Complainant agrees that its claims and remedies concerning the registration of the domain name, the dispute, or the dispute's resolution shall be solely against the domain name holder and waives all such claims and remedies against (a) the dispute- resolution provider and panelists, except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing, (b) the registrar, (c) the registry administrator, and (d) the Department of Commerce, as well as their directors, officers, employees, and agents."
"Complainant certifies that the information contained in this Complaint is to the best of Complainant's knowledge complete and accurate, that this Complaint is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass, and that the assertions in this Complaint are warranted under these Rules and under applicable law, as it now exists or as it may be extended by a good-faith and reasonable argument"; andxv. Annex any documentary or other evidence, including a copy of the Policy applicable to the domain name(s) in dispute and any trademark or service mark registration upon which the complaint relies, together with a schedule indexing such evidence.c. The complaint may relate to more than one domain name, provided that the same domain name holder registers the domain names.
4. Notification of Complainta. The Provider shall review the complaint for formal compliance with the Policy and the Rule. If the complaint is found to be in compliance, the Provider shall notify it to the Respondent, in the manner prescribed by Paragraph 2(a). For the purposes of notifying the Complainant, the Provider shall not be required to use any contact details other than those available in the Whois database for the domain name(s) in dispute.b. If the Provider finds the complaint to be formally deficient, it shall promptly notify the Complainant of the nature of the deficiencies identified. The Complainant shall have five (5) calendar days within which to correct any such deficiencies, after which the administrative proceeding will be deemed withdrawn without prejudice to submission of a different complaint by Complainant.c. The date of commencement of the administrative proceeding shall be the date on which the Provider completes its responsibilities under Paragraph 2(a) in connection with forwarding the Complaint to the Respondent.d. The Provider shall immediately notify the Complainant, the Respondent, the concerned Registrar(s), and DOC of the date of commencement of the administrative proceeding.
5. The Responsea. Within twenty (20) calendar days of the date of commencement of the administrative proceeding the Respondent shall submit a response to the Provider.b. The response shall be submitted in hard copy (with annexes) and in electronic form (without annexes).c. The response shall:i. Specifically respond to the statements and allegations contained in the complaint and include any and all bases for the Respondent to retain registration and use of the disputed domain name;ii. Provide the name, postal and e- mail addresses, and the telephone and telefax numbers of the Respondent and of any representative authorized to act for the Respondent in the administrative proceeding;iii. Specify a preferred method for communications directed to the Respondent in the administrative proceeding (including person to be contacted, medium, and address information) for each of (A) electronic-only material and (B) material including hard copy;iv. If Complainant has elected a single- member panel in the Complaint (see Paragraph 3(b)(iv)), state whether Respondent elects instead to have the dispute decided by a three- member panel;v. If either Complainant or Respondent elects a three- member Panel, provide the names and contact details of three candidates to serve as one of the Panelists (these candidates may be drawn from any DOC-approved Provider's list of panelists);vi. Identify any other legal proceedings that have been commenced or terminated in connection with or relating to any of the domain name(s) that are the subject of the complaint;vii. Conclude with the following statement followed by the signature of the Respondent or its authorized representative: "Respondent certifies that the information contained in this Response is to the best of Respondent's knowledge complete and accurate, that this Response is not being presented for any improper purpose, such as to harass, and that the assertions in this Response are warranted under these Rules and under applicable law, as it now exists or as it may be extended by a good- faith and reasonable argument."; andviii. Annex any documentary or other evidence upon which the Respondent relies, together with a schedule indexing such documents.d. If Complainant has elected to have the dispute decided by a single-member Panel and Respondent elects a three- member Panel, Respondent shall be required to pay one- half of the applicable fee for a three-member Panel as set forth in the Provider's Supplemental Rules. This payment shall be made together with the submission of the response to the Provider. In the event that the required payment is no t made, the dispute shall be decided by a single- member Panel.e. At the request of the Respondent, the Provider may, in exceptional cases, extend the period of time for the filing of the response. The period may also be extended by written stipulation between the Parties, provided the Provider approves the stipulation.f. If a Respondent does not submit a response, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall decide the dispute based upon the complaint.
6. Appointment of the Panel and Timing of Decisiona. Each Provider shall maintain and publish a publicly available list of panelists and their qualifications.b. If neither the Complainant nor the Respondent has elected a three-member Panel (Paragraphs 3(b)(iv) and 5(b)(iv)), the Provider shall appoint, within five (5) calendar days following receipt of the response by the Provider, or the lapse of the time period for the submission thereof, a single Panelist from its list of panelists. The fees for a single- member Panel shall be paid entirely by the Complainant.c. If either the Complainant or the Respondent elects to have the dispute decided by a three- member Panel, the Provider shall appoint three Panelists in accordance with the procedures identified in Paragraph 6(e). The fees for a three- member Panel shall be paid in their entirety by the Complainant, except where the election for a three- member Panel was made by the Respondent, in which case the applicable fees shall be shared equally between the Parties.d. Unless it has already elected a three- member Panel, the Complainant shall submit to the Provider, within five (5) calendar days of communication of a response in which the Respondent elects a three- member Panel, the names and contact details of three candidates to serve as one of the Panelists. These candidates may be drawn from any DOC-approved Provider's list of panelists.e. In the event that either the Complainant or the Respondent elects a three- member Panel, the Provider shall endeavor to appoint one Panelist from the list of candidates provided by each of the Complainant and the Respondent. In the event the Provider is unable within five (5) calendar days to secure the appointment of a Panelist on its customary terms from either Party's list of candidates, the Provider shall make that appointment from its list of panelists. The third Panelist shall be appointed by the Provider from a list of five candidates submitted by the Provider to the Parties, the Provider's selection from among the five being made in a manner that reasonably balances the preferences of both Parties, as they may specify to the Provider within five (5) calendar days of the Provider's submission of the five-candidate list to the Parties.f. Once the entire Panel is appointed, the Provider shall notify the Parties of the Panelists appointed and the date by which, absent exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall forward its decision on the complaint to the Provider.7. Impartiality and Independence-A Panelist shall be impartial and independent and shall have, before accepting appointment, disclosed to the Provider any circumstances giving rise to justifiable doubt as to the Panelist's impartiality or independence. If, at any stage during the administrative proceeding, new circumstances arise that could give rise to justifiable doubt as to the impartiality or independence of the Panelist, that Panelist shall promptly disclose such circumstances to the Provider. In such event, the Provider shall have the discretion to appoint a substitute Panelist.8. Communication Between Parties and the Panel-No Party or anyone acting on its behalf may have any unilateral communication with the Panel.9. Transmission of the File to the Panel-The Provider shall forward the case file as soon as the last Panelist is appointed in the case of a three- member Panel.
10. General Powers of the Panela. The Panel shall conduct the administrative proceeding in such manner as it considers appropriate in accordance with the Policy and these Rules.b. In all cases, the Panel shall ensure that the Parties are treated with equality and that each Party is given a fair opportunity to present its case.c. The Panel shall ensure that the administrative proceeding takes place with due expedition. It may, at the request of a Party or on its own motion, extend, in exceptional cases, a period of time fixed by these Rules or by the Panel.d. The Panel shall determine the admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of the evidence.e. A Panel shall decide a request by a Party to consolidate multiple domain name disputes in accordance with the Policy and these Rules.11. Language of Proceedings-All communications shall be made in English.12. Further Statements-In addition to the complaint and the response, the Panel may request, in its sole discretion, further statements or documents from either of the Parties.13. In-Person Hearings-There shall be no in-person hearings (including hearings by teleconference, videoconference, and web conference), unless the Panel determines, in its sole discretion and as an exceptional matter, that such a hearing is necessary for deciding the complaint.
14. Defaulta. In the event that a Party, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, does not comply with any of the time periods established by these Rules or the Panel, the Panel shall proceed to a decision on the complaint.b. If a Party, in the absence of exceptional circumstances, does not comply with any provision of, or requirement under, these Rules or any request from the Panel, the Panel shall draw such inferences there from as it considers appropriate.
15. Panel Decisionsa. A Panel shall decide a complaint on the basis of the statements and documents submitted and in accordance with the Policy, these Rules and any rules and principles of law that it deems applicable.b. In the absence of exceptional circumstances, the Panel shall forward its decision on the complaint to the Provider within fourteen (14) days of its appointment pursuant to Paragraph 6.c. In the case of a three- member Panel, the majority shall make the Panel's decision.d. The Panel's decision shall be in writing, provide the reasons on which it is based, indicate the date on which it was rendered and identify the name(s) of the Panelist(s).e. Panel decisions and dissenting opinions shall normally comply with the guidelines as to length set forth in the Provider's Supplemental Rules. Any dissenting opinion shall accompany the majority decision. If the Panel concludes that the dispute is not within the scope of Paragraph 4(a) of the Policy, it shall so state. If after considering the submissions the Panel finds that the complaint was brought in bad faith, for example in an attempt at Reverse Domain Name Hijacking or was brought primarily to harass the domain name holder, the Panel shall declare in its decision that the complaint was brought in bad faith and constitutes an abuse of the administrative proceeding.
16. Communication of Decision to Partiesa. Within three (3) calendar days after receiving the decision from the Panel, the Provider shall communicate the full text of the decision to each Party, the concerned Registrar(s), and DOC. The concerned Registrar(s) shall immediately communicate to each Party, the Provider, and DOC the date for the implementation of the decision in accordance with the Policy.b. Except if the Panel determines otherwise (see Paragraph 4(j) of the Policy), the Provider shall publish the full decision and the date of its implementation on a publicly accessible web site. In any event, the portion of any decision determining a complaint to have been brought in bad faith (see Paragraph 15(e) of these Rules) shall be published.
17. Settlement or Other Grounds for Terminationa. If, before the Panel's decision, the Parties agree on a settlement, the Panel shall terminate the administrative proceeding.b. If, before the Panel's decision is made, it becomes unnecessary or impossible to continue the administrative proceeding for any reason, the Panel shall terminate the administrative proceeding, unless a Party raises justifiable grounds for objection within a period of time to be determined by the Panel.
18. Effect of Court Proceedingsa. In the event of any legal proceedings initiated prior to or during an administrative proceeding in respect of a domain name dispute that is the subject of the complaint, the Panel shall have the discretion to decide whether to suspend or terminate the administrative proceeding, or to proceed to a decision.b. In the event that a Party initiates any legal proceedings during the pendency of an administrative proceeding in respect of a domain name dispute that is the subject of the complaint, it shall promptly notify the Panel and the Provider. See Paragraph 8 above.
19. Feesa. The Complainant shall pay to the Provider an initial fixed fee, in accordance with the Provider's Supplemental Rules, within the time and in the amount required. A Respondent electing under Paragraph 5(b)(iv) to have the dispute decided by a three- member Panel, rather than the single-member Panel elected by the Complainant, shall pay the Provider one-half the fixed fee for a three- member Panel. See Paragraph 5(c). In all other cases, the Complainant shall bear all of the Provider's fees, except as prescribed under Paragraph 19(d). Upon appointment of the Panel, the Provider shall refund the appropriate portion, if any, of the initial fee to the Complainant, as specified in the Provider's Supplemental Rules.b. The Provider shall not take any action on a complaint until it has received from Complainant the initial fee in accordance with Paragraph 19(a).c. If the Provider has not received the fee within ten (10) calendar days of receiving the complaint, the complaint shall be deemed withdrawn and the administrative proceeding terminated.d. In exceptional circumstances, for example in the event an in-person hearing is held, the Provider shall request the Parties for the payment of additional fees, which shall be established in agreement with the Parties and the Panel.20. Exclusion of Liability-Except in the case of deliberate wrongdoing, neither the Provider nor a Panelist shall be liable to a Party for any act or omission in connection with any administrative proceeding under the Policy and the Rules.21. Amendments-The version of these Rules in effect at the time of the submission of the complaint to the Provider shall apply to the administrative proceeding commenced thereby. These Rules may not be amended without the express written approval of DOC.
A top-level domain devoted solely to international treaty organizations that have independent legal personality. Such organizations are not governed by the laws of any specific country, rather by mutual agreement between multiple countries. IANA maintains the domain registry for this domain.
The representation of an IPv4 address in the DNS system.
The representation of an IPv6 address in the DNS system.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Administrative contact is intended to represent the Registrant(owner) of the domain, in any non-technical matters, regarding the management of the domain. Certain extensions require Administrative contact to confirm requests and accept notices about the domain name.
The ASCII-compatible encoded (ACE) representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is transmitted internally within the DNS protocol. A-labels always commence the with the prefix "xn--". Contrast with U-label.
Originally a reference to the US Government agency that managed some of the Internet’s initial development, now a top-level domain used solely for machine-readable use by computers for certain protocols — such as for reverse IP address lookups, and ENUM. The domain is not designed for general registrations. IANA manages ARPA in conjunction with the Internet Architecture Board.
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
The standard for transmitting English (or "Latin") letters over the Internet. DNS was originally limited to only Latin characters because it uses ASCII as its encoding format, although this has been expanded using Internationalized Domain Names(IDN) for Applications.
Authoritative Name Server
A domain name server configured to host the official record of the contents of a DNS zone. Each American .us domain name must have a set of these so computers on the Internet can find out the contents of that domain. The set of authoritative name servers for any given domain must be configured as NS records in the parent domain.
The service of automatic renewal allows the customers the convenience of automatic billing for the services ordered through the domain registrar. If the automatic renewal is selected, customer's credit card will be automatically charged for the service, which will avoid the interruption in service.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Billing contact is responsible for the payment of the domain, and is usually assigned to the registrar managing the domain.
The combination of a recursive name server and a caching name server.
Domains can be forwarded to another URL by using a forwarding service. Cloaking forwarding differs from Apache 301 forwarding by showing the content of the URL being forwarded to, however the URL bar displays the original domain name.
A CNAME record is an abbreviation for Canonical Name record and is a type of resource record in the Domain Name System (DNS) used to specify that a domain name is an alias for another domain, the "canonical" domain. CNAME has a very specific syntax rule. CNAME can only be set up for the unique subdomain, meaning that it cannot be set up for any subdomain, which has already been set up for the domain. Thus CNAME is most commonly set up for WWW subdomain.
Country-code top-level domain (ccTLD)
A Class of Top Level Domains, generally assigned or reserved by a country, sovereign state, or territory. IANA is the organization, responsible for the ccTLD assignments. Since 2010 there 2 types of ccTLDs: 2 letter ASCII characters TLDs and IDN TLDs, which consist of the native language characters. Each country/territory is able to implement certain restrictions and requirements on the ccTLD assigned to them.
Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP)
The name of the working group at the IETF that developed the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS), a next-generation WHOIS protocol replacement.
Any transfer of responsibility to another entity. In the domain name system, one name server can provide pointers to more useful name servers for a given request by returning NS records. On an administrative level, sub-domains are delegated to other entities. IANA also delegates IP address blocks to regional Internet registries.
Deletion of the domain results in the domain record being removed from the registry's database. Domain deletion procedure and availability differs depending on each of the TLD's policy. Certain extensions require additional payment to delete a domain name.
A section of the Domain Name System name space. By default, the Root Zone contains all domain names, however in practice sections of this are delegated into smaller zones in a hierarchical fashion. For example, the .com zone would refer to the portion of the DNS delegated that ends in .com.
A technology that can be added to the Domain Name System to verify the authenticity of its data. The works by adding verifiable chains of trust that can be validated to the domain name system.
In order to prevent unwanted changed to the domain names, customers have an ability to change the locks on their domain names. The domain lock availability depends on individual TLD, and includes clientTransferProhibited, clientUpdateProhibited, clientDeleteProhibited, clientRenewProhibited.
A unique identifier with a set of properties attached to it so that computers can perform conversions. A typical domain name is "icann.org". Most commonly the property attached is an IP address, like "126.96.36.199", so that computers can convert the domain name into an IP address. However the DNS is used for many other purposes. The domain name may also be a delegation, which transfers responsibility of all sub-domains within that domain to another entity. domain name label a constituent part of a domain name. The labels of domain names are connected by dots. For example, "www.iana.org" contains three labels — "www", "iana" and "org". For internationalized domain names, the labels may be referred to as A-labels and U-labels.
Domain Name Registrar
An entity offering domain name registration services, as an agent between registrants and registries. Usually multiple registrars exist who compete with each other, and are accredited. For most generic top-level domains, domain name registrars are accredited by ICANN.
Domain Name Registry
A registry tasked with managing the contents of a DNS zone, by giving registrations of sub-domains to registrants.
Domain Name Server
A general term for a computer hardware or software server, which answers requests to convert domain names into something else. These can be subdivided into authoritative name servers, which store the database for a particular DNS zone; as well as recursive name servers and caching name servers.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The global hierarchical system of domain names. A global distributed database contains the information to perform the domain name conversations, and the most central part of that database, known as the root zone is coordinated by IANA.
Dot or “."
Common way of referring to a specific top-level domain. Dot generally precedes the Top Level domain, such as dot com is written down as “.us”.
The expiration date determines when the domain registration period ends. In order to avoid downtime for the domain, renewal of the domain at least two weeks before expiration date is strongly encouraged. After the expiration date passes, some registries maintain the record of the domain name under the same owner, however the DNS services are put on hold.
Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
A protocol used for electronic communication between a registrar and a registry for provisioning domain names.
Refers to the last portion of the domain name, located after the dot. Domain extension helps determine the registry, to which domain pertains, and allows to accurately classify the domain name.
First Come, First Served (FCFS)
Multiple applications for the same domain name are not accepted. The domain will be awarded to the first registrar who submits a registration request.
File Transfer Protocol does exactly what it says. The standard network protocol allows the transfer of files from one host to another. There are many FTP clients(programs) available, which allow you to connect to your host and transfer your completed content to your hosting provider's space.
Fully-Qualified Domain Mame (FQDN)
A complete domain name including all its components, i.e. "www.icann.org" as opposed to "www".
A document, formally known as the Principles for the Delegation and Administration of ccTLDs. This document was developed by the ICANN Governmental Advisory Committee and documents a set of principles agreed by governments on how ccTLDs should be delegated and run.
General Availability Phase
Domains are awarded on first come first serve basis, granted that the domains are available after the previous phases have concluded.
Generic top-level domains (gTLDs)
A class of top-level domains that are used for general purposes, where ICANN has a strong role in coordination (as opposed to country-code top-level domains, which are managed locally).
An explicit notation of the IP address of a name server, placed in a zone outside of the zone that would ordinarily contain that information. All name servers are in-bailiwick of the Root Zone, therefore glue records is required for all name servers listed there. Also referred to as just "glue".
A file stored in DNS software (i.e. recursive name servers) that tells it where the DNS root servers are located.
The name of a computer. Typically the left-most part of a fully-qualified domain name.
HyperText Transfer Protocol serves as the cornerstone protocol for World Wide Web, which allows the transfer of data between clients and servers.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
A component of RFCs that refer to any work required by IANA to maintain registries for a specific protocol.
The contract between ICANN and the US Government that governs how various IANA functions are performed.
See Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers(ICANN) is responsible responsible for the coordination of maintenance and methodology of several databases of unique identifiers related to the namespaces of the Internet, and ensuring the network's stable and secure operation.
Internal transfer refers to a transfer of a domain name within the same registrar. This procedure may be simpler, than starting a domain transfer, which involves 2 different registrars. The internal transfer is possible, after two parties involved in the internal transfer come to an agreement about the terms of the transfer.
Internationalized domain name (IDN)
Internet domain name, which allows the use of a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Cyrillic, and Chinese. Adoption of IDN domain names is a significant step towards including non-English speakers into the world of Internet. Internationalized domain name is stored in Domain Name System as ASCII strings, which are transcribed by the use of Punycode.
Internet Architecture Board (IAB)
The oversight body of the IETF, responsible for overall strategic direction of Internet standardization efforts. The IAB works with ICANN on how the IANA protocol parameter registries should be managed. The IAB is an activity of the Internet Society, a non-profit organization.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
A department of ICANN tasked with providing various Internet coordination functions, primarily those described in a contract between ICANN and the US Government. The functions relate to ensuring globally-unique protocol parameter assignment, including management of the root of the Domain Name System and IP Address Space. ICANN staff within this department is often referred to as "IANA Staff".
Internet Coordination Policy (ICP)
A series of documents created by ICANN between 1999 and 2000 describing management procedures.
Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG)
The committee of area experts of the IETF’s areas of work, that acts as its board of management.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
The key Internet standardization forum. The standards developed within the IETF are published as RFCs.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The fundamental protocol that is used to transmit information over the Internet. Data transmitted over the Internet is transmitted using the Internet Protocol, usually in conjunction with a more specialized protocol. Computers are uniquely identified on the Internet using an IP Address.
A unique identifier for a device on the Internet. The identifier is used to accurately route Internet traffic to that device. IP addresses must be unique on the global Internet.
Internet Protocol version 4. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 32-bit IP addresses.
Internet Protocol version 6. Refers to the version of Internet protocol that supports 128-bit IP addresses.
This phase allows you a greater chance to obtain a domain name prior to General Availability, typically for an increased fee. The fee generally varies depending on how early you want to register. Priority is either first-come, first-served or will go to an auction cpr144449003101 if there are multiple applicants, depending on registry rules. A common fee structure that will be in use is the Early Access Program (EAP). Further details on a specific extensions landrush phase can be found under the landrush section for that a particular domain.
Mail exchange (mx) record
MX record determines which server the mail client will be retrieving the mail from. The MX records for individual domains can be set up in the DNS records section of the client's control panel.
New Generic Top Level Domain (New gTLD)
Starting on July 15th, 2013 ICANN has started process of delegating new Generic Top Level Domains, opening up new opportunities for the internet community. New extensions include popular categories like professional domains, IDNs, general interest domains, and brand domain names.
a type of record in a DNS zone that signifies part of that zone is delegated to a different set of authoritative name servers.
The domain above a domain in the DNS hierarchy. For all top-level domains, the Root Zone is the parent domain. The Root Zone has no parent domain as it is as the top of the hierarchy. Opposite of sub-domain.
Many of the registrars offer a free service of domain parking. This allows the customer to quickly register a domain name, and choose the hosting solution at a later date. Very often the registrar's parking DNS servers allow DNS record modification.
Paid pre-registration allows you to purchase the domain in the General Availability phase, and the domain will be submitted as soon as the General Availability phase opens.
Primary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Primary name server is responsible for storing information about the domain routing and making it available for requests.
The representation of a IP address to domain name mapping in the DNS system.
Recursive Name Server
A domain name server configured to perform DNS lookups on behalf of other computers.
The transfer of a delegation from one entity to another. Most commonly used to refer to the redelegation process used for top-level domains.
A special type of root zone change where there is a significant change involving the transfer of operations of a top-level domain to a new entity.
Redemption Grace Period
Redemption Grace Period(RGP) is a period after the expiration date, in which the domain still belongs to the same client, however the functionality is put on hold. The domain can usually be restored after paying for RGP fee. gTLDs often have a Renewal Period of 30 days before the Redemption Grace Period starts.
Regional Internet Registry (RIR)
A registry responsible for allocation of IP address resources within a particular region.
See Registrant Contact
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Registrant contact is the owner of the domain, and is the entity that holds right to use the particular domain name.
Registrar for .us
An entity that can act on requests from a registrant in making changes in a registry. Usually the registrar is the same entity that operates a registry, although for domain names this role is often split to allow for competition between multiple registrars who offer different levels of support.
Registry United States .us
The authoritative record of registrations for a particular set of data. Most often used to refer to domain name registry, but all protocol parameters that IANA maintains are also registries.
Registry Operator for .us United States
The entity that runs a registry.
A method of translating an IP address into a domain name, so-called as it is the opposite of a typical lookup that converts a domain name to an IP address.
A series of Internet engineering documents describing Internet standards, as well as discussion papers, informational memorandums and best practices. Internet standards that are published in an RFC originate from the IETF. The RFC series is published by the RFC Editor.
The highest level of the domain system.
The authoritative name servers for the Root Zone.
The top of the domain name system hierarchy. The root zone contains all of the delegations for top-level domains, as well as the list of root servers, and is managed by IANA.
Root Zone Management (RZM)
The management of the DNS Root Zone by IANA.
A project to automate many aspects of the Root Zone Management function within IANA. Based on a software tool originally called "eIANA".
Secondary name server
Practically every domain extension requires minimum 2 DNS servers in order for the domain to be successfully registered. Secondary server is responsible for copying information from the primary server. The original purpose of secondary server is to take over the requests, if the primary server is down. Some of the registries no longer put an emphasis on which server is primary or secondary, but many international registries still use the old standard.
The entity acting as the trustee of a top-level domain on behalf of its designated community.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a cryptographivc protocol, which is designed to provide communication security over internet. The data entered on the websites, using SSL, is encrypted, thus making it less susceptible to data theft.
In the domain hierarchy, or structure, subdomain is a domain, which is a part of a larger domain. For example, "www.icann.org" is a sub-domain of "icann.org", and "icann.org" is a sub-domain of "org". Subdomains can generally be setup through a DNS server management utility as A records or CNAME records.
A phase in which holders of eligible trademarks have the opportunity to apply and register domain names that correspond to their trademarks. To participate in Sunrise for new gTLDs, trademark holders must validate their trademarks with the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH) first and must provide a valid Signed Mark Data (SMD) file for submission.
Majority of the registries require 4 contacts for a successful domain registration: Registrant, Administrative, Technical and Billing. The Technical contact is intended to assist the Registrant(owner) contact in any queries that pertain to the technical aspects of managing the domain name.
Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH)
The central database of verified trademarks that was created by ICANN to provide brand protection to trademark holders during ICANN’s new gTLD program. Its' a centralized database of verified trademarks, that is connected to each and every new Top Level Domain (TLD) that will launch.
Top-level domain (TLD)
The highest level of subdivisions with the domain name system. These domains, such as ".us" and ".uk" are delegated from the DNS Root zone. They are generally divided into two distinct categories, generic top-level domains and country-code top-level domains.
Most commonly, the term transfer refers to a inter-registrar transfer of registrations. The procedure of the tranfer will largely depend on the TLD, and is most commonly completed by requesting an authorization code from the current registrar and initiating the transfer at another registrar.
A known good cryptographic certificate that can be used to validate a chain of trust. Trust anchor repository (TAR) Any repository of public keys that can be used as trust anchors for validating chains of trust. See Interim Trust Anchor Repository (ITAR) for one such repository for top-level domain operators using DNSSEC.
An entity entrusted with the operations of an Internet resource for the benefit of the wider community. In IANA circles, usually in reference to the sponsoring organization of a top-level domain.
The Unicode representation of an internationalized domain name, i.e. how it is shown to the end-user. Contrast with A-label.
A standard describing a repertoire of characters used to represent most of the worlds languages in written form. Unicode is the basis for internationalized domain names.
Uniform resource locator (URL)
Uniform Resource Locator(URL), commonly known as web address, is an address to a resource on the internet. The URL consists of two components: Protocol Identifier(i.e. http, https) and the Resource name(i.e. icann.org)
Unsponsored top-level domain
A sub-classification of generic top-level domain, where there is no formal community of interest. Unsponsored top-level domains(.COM, .NET, .ORG, etc.) are administered according to the policies and processes established by ICANN.
URL Forwarding or URL redirection refers to the most common type of forwarding offered by domain registrars. Forwarding occurs when all pages from one domain are redirected to another domain.
A standard used for transmitting Unicode characters.
In the context of internationalized domain names, an alternative domain name that can be registered, or mean the same thing, because some of its characters can be registered in multiple different ways due to the way the language works. Depending on registry policy, variants may be registered together in one block called a variant bundle. For example, "internationalise" and "internationalize" may be considered variants in English.
A collection of multiple domain names that are grouped together because some of the characters are considered variants of the others.
A type of IDN table that describes the variants for a particular language or script. For example, a variant table may map Simplified Chinese characters to Traditional Chinese characters for the purpose of constructing a variant bundle.
Web host (Hosting Provider)
Web host is a type of an Internet service, which allows users to host content and/or email services by providing hosting space. Most often the hosting providers include control panels and tools for building a website and maintaining mail records.
A simple plain text-based protocol for looking up registration data within a registry. Typically used for domain name registries and IP address registries to find out who has registered a particular resource. (Usage note: not "Whois" or "whois")
Used to refer to parts of a registry’s database that are made public using the WHOIS protocol, or via similar mechanisms using other protocols (such as web pages, or IRIS). Most commonly used to refer to a domain name registry’s public database.
An interface, usually a web-based form, that will perform a look-up to a WHOIS server. This allows one to find WHOIS information without needing a specialized computer program that speaks the WHOIS protocol.
A system running on port number 43 that accepts queries using the WHOIS protocol.
The format of data when it is transmitted over the Internet (i.e. "over the wire"). For example, an A-label is the wire format of an internationalized domain name; and UTF-8 is a possible wire format of Unicode.
A machine-readable file format for storing structured data. Used to represent web pages (in a subset called HTML) etc. Used by IANA for storing protocol parameter registries.
Zone (DNS Records)
The zone file, also know as the DNS records is a vital component of DNS system, which contains various DNS records, which point to the location of content and email servers for each individual domain. Editing zone is made possible in the client's control panel.
Signed Mark Data (SMD)
A Signed Mark Data (SMD) is file that will allow you to register domain names during the sunrise period of new gTLD’s and request other services. It validates that you trademark has been verified within the Trademark Clearinghouse (TMCH).
The trademark claims period extends for 90 days after the close of the Sunrise period. During the Claims period, anyone attempting to register a domain name matching a trademark that is recorded in the Trademark Clearinghouse will receive a notification displaying the relevant mark information. If the notified party goes and ahead and registers the domain name the Trademark Clearinghouse will send a notice to those trademark holders with matching records in the Clearinghouse, informing them that someone has registered the domain name.